First Edition   ©2017

Let's Communicate

An Illustrated Guide to Human Communication

Douglas M. Fraleigh (California State University, Fresno) , Joseph S. Tuman (San Francisco State University) , Katherine L Adams

  • ISBN-10: 1-4576-0601-1; ISBN-13: 978-1-4576-0601-4; Format: Paper Text, 720 pages

Let’s communicate 1/e contents

Brief Contents

Preface

 THE ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO HUMAN COMMUNICATION
   1 Introduction to human communication

Communication: The Basics

Communication Defined

                                                   Contexts for Communication

                                                   Interpersonal Communication

Group Communication

Public Speaking

Mass and Mediated Communication

The Importance of Effective Communication

                                                    Benefits of Effective Communication

Communication Helps in Your Personal Life

Communication Helps in Your Career

Communication Helps You as a Student

Communication Helps You in Your Community

Gaining Communication Competence

                                                   Achieving Communication Goals

Building a Communication Repertoire

Choosing Appropriate Communication Behaviors

Principles of Communication

                                                  Communication is a Transactional Process

Communication is Symbolic

Communication Can Result in Shared Meaning

Misconceptions About Communication

Communication is not Just Common Sense

Communication is not Always Positive

Communication Does Not Always Result in Agreement

                                                 Communication Cannot Solve Every Problem

Chapter Review

2 PERCEIVING OTHERS, PERCEIVING OURSELVES
Perceiving Others

The Meaning of Perception

The Role of Perception in Communication

Making the right communication choices

Making a good impression on others

Deepening and strengthening our interactions.

The Formation of Perceptions

Receiving Stimuli

Using Mental Associations (Schemas) to Make Sense of Stimuli

Sources of Mental Associations

Barriers to Perception and How to Overcome Them

             Why are Perceptions Often Inaccurate

              Rush to Judgment

Stereotypes

Fooled by Appearances

She Reminds Me of Aunt Minnie (Transference)

Giving Ourselves the Benefit of the Doubt

Improving the Accuracy of Perceptions

Recognize that Perceptions are Fallible

Seek Additional Data

Differentiate Facts and Inferences

Check Perceptions

Perceiving Ourselves

                                                   The Nature of Your Self-Concept

Attributes of Self-Concepts

Self-Concept and Self-Esteem

Sources of Self-Concepts

Reflected Appraisals

Sociocultural and Gender Contexts

Improving Your Self-Concept

Positive Self-Talk

Personal Growth

Reappraisal

Support Networks

Identity Management

How We Engage in Identity Management

Objectives of Identity Management

                                                     Ethics and Identity Management

Online Identity Management

Chapter Review


3    VERBAL COMMUNICATION
The Nature of Verbal Communication

Language is Rule-Based

Semantic Rules

Syntactic Rules

Pragmatic Rules

Language is Symbolic

Language is Literal and Figurative

Language is Dynamic

Language is Contextual

Verbal Communication and the Challenge of Understanding

                                                      Language is an Imperfect Vehicle for Understanding

Problematic Language Exacerbates Misunderstandings

Abstract Language

Jargon

Improper Use of Words

Equivocal Language

The Effects of Verbal Communication

Use of Language

Sharing Information

Influencing Others

Expressing Feelings

Imagining

Accomplishing Actions

Abuses of Language

                Biased Language

Inflammatory Language

Guidelines for Verbal Communication

               Make Your Message Clear

               Consider Your Listeners or Readers

Use Concise Language

Focus on Concrete Terms

Check for Understanding

Make Your Message Considerate

                Avoid Stereotypes

                Use Gender-Neutral Terms

                Make Appropriate References to Ethnic Groups

                Avoid Unnecessary References to Ethnicity, Religion, Gender, or Sexuality

                Appropriate Language and Political Correctness

                Make Your Responses Respectful

                                    Work for Accurate Understanding

                                    Respond with Respect

                                    Take Ownership of Your Feelings

Chapter Review

4     Nonverbal
Influences on Nonverbal Communication

                                 Culture

                                 Gender

Technology

Functions of Nonverbal Communication

Supplementing

Repeating

Contradicting

Regulating

Substituting

Accenting

Types of Nonverbal Communication

Kinesics

Facial Expressions

                                 Oculesics

                                 Haptics

                                 Proxemics

                                 Physical Appearance

                                 Paralanguage

                                 Smell (Olfacics)

                                 Chronemics

Technology and its Impact on Nonverbal Communication

Guidelines for Communicating Nonverbal Messages Effectively

Chapter Review

5    LISTENING SKILLS
How We Listen

Listening and Hearing Processing What You’ve Heard

Retaining What You’ve Processed

                       Listening Styles

                      Action-Oriented Listening

                      Content-Oriented Listening

                       People-Oriented Listening

                       Time-Oriented Listening

Overcoming Listening Challenges

                                           External Factors that Affect Listening

Rate of Delivery

Time

Physical Location

External Noise

The Culprits Behind Poor Listening

Information Overload

Distracted Listening

Interruptive Listening

Agenda-Driven Listening

Argumentative Listening

Nervous Listening

Becoming a Better Listener

Filter Out Distractions

Focus on the Speaker

                                           Show That You are Listening

Helping Others to Listen to You

           Anticipate Ineffective Listening Before You Speak

                     Consider Your Listeners’ Attention and Energy Levels

Assess Your Audience’s Knowledge and Abilities

Front- and Back-Load Your Main Message

Use Presentation Aids Strategically

           Encourage Active Listening

                      Tailor Your Delivery

                      Watch Out for Argumentative Listeners

                      Watch Out for Defeated Listeners

                       Watch Out for Superficial Listeners

When You are the Listener

            Making a Speech Critique

            Giving Conversational Feedback

Chapter Review

6   CULTURE AND COMMUNICATION
What is Culture?
Culture and Diversity

Ethnicity, Race, and Heritage

Gender and Sexual Orientation

Age

Variations in Culture: How Do They Affect Communication?

                                            Uncertainty Avoidance

                                            High and Low Context

                                            Collectivist and Individualistic

                                            Masculine and Feminine

                                            Contact and Non-Contact

                                            Understanding of Power Distance

Assimilation, Accommodation, and Separation

                                            Assimilation

                                            Accommodation

                                            Separation

Challenges to Intercultural Communication

Ethnocentrism

Prejudice

Hate and Hate Speech

Constructive Steps to Improving Intercultural Communication

Show Awareness and Respect for Cultural Communication Variations

Express a Willingness to Learn About and Participate in Other Cultures

                           Limit Ethnocentrism and Condemn Hate

Chapter Review

7 MASS AND MEDIATED COMMUNICATION
Understanding Mass Media

Entertainment Media and News Media

Old Media and New Media

Free Media and Paid Media

Understanding Social Media

                                 Effects of Social Media

                                 Anonymity, Free Speech and Privacy Issues

                                 Digital Divide and Net Neutrality

Media-Centric Criticism

                                Critical Media Theory

                                Agenda-Setting and Framing Theory

Suggestions for Mediated Communication

Become a Critical Consumer of Mass Media

Avoid Being Influenced by Media Depictions of "The Other"

Be Mindful About How Much Personal Information You Share on Social Media

Don’t Say Anything Online You Wouldn’t Say in Person

Consider Taking a Break to Avoid Technology Burnout

Chapter Review

8   PRINCIPLES OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Interpersonal Communication in the Dyad

The Benefits of Interpersonal Relationships

Belonging

Emotional, Psychological, and Physical Well-Being

Self-Expression

Reciprocal Altruism

                 The Nature and Type of Close Dyads

                            Friendships

                            Work Peers

                            Romantic and Marital Relationships

Selecting a Few from the Many

                                                   The Secrets of Attraction: Noticing

                  Brain Chemistry

Proximity

Similarity

                                                   The Secrets of Initiating: Opening Moves

                  Introductions

                  Managing First Impressions

                  Small Talk

Capturing Relational Movement

                                                   The Straightforward Path

                                                   The Turbulent Path

                  Imagined Trajectories

                  Cyclical Tensions

Self-Disclosure and Privacy

Social Penetration Theory

The Downside to Self-Disclosure

Communication Privacy Management Theory (CPM)

                    Privacy Rules

                    Privacy Violations

Understanding and Managing Dialectical Tensions

Dialectical Tensions

                    Connection/Separation

                    Openness/Closedness

                     Predictability/Novelty

Managing Dialectical Tensions

                    Separation

                    Selection

                    Balance

                    Reframing

Chapter Review

9      PRACTICES FOR EFFECTIVE INTERPSONAL RELATIONSHIPS
Maintaining Relationships

Common Maintenance Behaviors

Maintaining Relationships with Technology

Maintaining Different Types of Relationships

Romantic Relationships

Positivity and Assurances

Sharing Tasks

Social Networks

Technology

          Friendships

                 Positivity

                 Sharing Activities

                 Openness

                 Cross-Sex Friends: Special Considerations

                 Friends-with-Benefits: Special Considerations

         Workplace Relationships

Five General Guidelines for Maintaining Relationships

                                    Embrace Your Agency

                                    Connecting Bids

                                    Taking Action Based on Knowledge

                                    Nurture Mutual Commitment

                                    Don’t Fear Uncertainty

Managing Interpersonal Conflict

                                    What is Interpersonal Conflict?

                                    Common Causes of Conflict

           Behavior

           Relational Rules

           Personality

                                     Benefits of Interpersonal Conflict

Styles and Patterns of Conflict

Six Conflict Styles

           Competitive Fighting: Direct and Uncooperative

           Collaborating: Direct and Cooperative

           Compromising: Moderate Directness and Cooperation

            Yielding: Indirect and Cooperative

            Avoiding: Indirect

             Indirect Fighting: Indirect and Uncooperative                                                                 Unhealthy Conflict Patterns

             Negative Reciprocity

             Common Couple Violence

             Demand-Withdrawal

             Cascading Negativity

Staying Respectful, Strong, and Positive in Conflict

Accept Conflict

Monitor Your Emotions

Express Criticisms Gently and Respectfully

Engage in Conflict with Positive Expectations

Keep Positivity in Balance with Negativity

Chapter Review

10 PRINCIPLES OF GROUP COMMUNICATION
Small Group Characteristics

Small Group Communication

Types

Group size

              Size and Complexity

              Size and Stability

Advantages of Small Groups

Diverse Perspectives

Multiple Resources

Commitment

Small Group Dynamics

                                                              Small Group Roles

               Work Roles

               Social Roles

               Selfish Roles

                                                            Group Development

Cultural Diversity

                                                            Collectivist and Individualistic

                                                            Power Distance

                                                            Uncertainty Avoidance

                                                            High and Low Context

                                                            Masculine and Feminine

                                                            Mindful Communication

Small Group Communication in the Digital Age

Technology for Group Meetings

            E-mail

           Text messaging

           Instant Messaging (IM)

           Video and Audio Conferencing

           Meeting Applications

Electronic Bulletin Board Services (BBS) and a Chat Room or Instant Relay Chat (IRC)

Technology for Group Work and Document Sharing

Guidelines for Using Technology for Group Work

Effective Participation in a Small Group

Prepare for Group Meetings

Listen Interactively

Participate, Don’t Dominate

Fulfill Your Commitments

Use Technology to Your Advantage

Encourage a Positive Climate with Politeness and Authenticity

Chapter Review

11    PROBLEM SOLVING AND LEADING A SMALL GROUP
Group Problem Solving

Define the Problem

Generate Possible Solutions

Establish Criteria for Solutions

Select the Best Solution

Tips for Using Problem-Solving Agendas

Make Sure Group Members Understand the Task

Getting Rid of Roadblocks

Carefully Observe Your Process

Technology and Group Problem Solving

Effective Group Leadership

                                     Leaders versus Leadership

                                     Types of Leadership

                                     Leading in Virtual Groups

                                     Leadership Challenges

Leading Meetings and Managing Conflict

                                     Leading Meetings

           Address Procedural Needs

           Model the Behavior You Expect

           Facilitate Discussion

           Keep Members on Task

Help Members Avoid Groupthink

Facilitate Decisions

Assess Meeting-to-Meeting Effectiveness

Managing Conflict

         Refer to Ideas by Topic, Not the Person

         Manage Conflicts Respectfully

Focus on Tasks, Not Disagreements

Manage Disruptive Emotions

Chapter Review

12 PUBLIC SPEAKING: FIRST STEPS
Introduction to Public Speaking

Why Study Public Speaking?

In the Workplace

In School and Community Settings

On Special Occasions

A Great Tradition

Key Elements of Public Speaking

            Public Speaking Features Communication Between a Speaker and an Audience

            Public Speaking is Audience Centered

            Public Speaking Emphasizes the Spoken Word

            Public Speaking is Generally a Prepared Presentation

The Speech Preparation Process

The Classical Approach to Speech Preparation

The Benefits of an Organized Preparation Plan

Audience Analysis

                                         The Importance of Audience Analysis

                                         Analyzing Situational Characteristics

        Audience Size

        Time

         Location (Forum)

Incorporating Demographics

         Age

         Gender Composition

Race and Ethnicity

Sexual Orientation

Religious Orientation

                                                    Seeking Common Ground

                                                     Identifying Prior Exposure

           Has My Audience Heard This Message Before?

           Has My Audience Responded Positively to the Message?

          Why Did the Previous Message Fail?

Topic Selection

Developing a Set of Potential Topics

          Research

          Brainstorming

Word Association

Mind Mapping

          Selecting the Best Topic

                  Consider the Assignment

                  Consider the Audience

                  Consider Your Own Knowledge and Interests

                  Choose a Topic and Stick to It

Refining Your Topic

         Decide Your Rhetorical Purpose

         Narrow Your Topic

Drafting Your Specific Purpose Statement

Drafting Your Thesis Statement

Chapter Review 

13   SPEECH CONTENT: RESEARCH, SUPPORTING MATERIALS, AND ETHICS
Researching Your Speech

Creating a Research Plan

            Inventory Your Research Needs

            Find the Sources You Need

            Keep Track of Your Sources

Evaluating a Source’s Credibility

Expertise

Objectivity

Observational Capacity

Recency

Conducting Library Research

             Books

             Periodicals

             Newspapers

             Government Documents

Using the Internet

             Benefits of Internet Research

             Disadvantages of Internet Research

             Participatory (or Social) Media

             Evaluating the Credibility of Online Sources                                                                Interview Research

             Prepare for Your Interview

             Set Up Your Interview

             Plan Your Interview Questions

             Conduct the Interview

Presenting Evidence in Your Speeches

Selecting and Using Supporting Materials

Uses of Supporting Materials

Types of Supporting Materials

             Examples

             Definitions

             Testimony

             Statistics

            Narratives

            Analogies

Guidelines for Using Supporting Materials

Speech Ethics

                                                      Communicating Truthfully

              Lying

              Half-Truths

              False Inference

              Omission

Acknowledging and Representing Others’ Work

              Avoid Plagiarism

              Properly Quote from Sources                                                                            Acknowledge Others’ Work

Chapter Review

14   ORGANIZING AND OUTLINING
Organizing the Body of Your Speech

Selecting Your Main Points

Consider Your Specific Purpose

Take Your Audience into Account

Select an Appropriate Number of Main Points

Arranging Your Main Points

                  Spatial Pattern

                  Chronological Pattern

                  Causal Pattern

                  Comparison Pattern

                  Categorical Pattern

Organizing Your Supporting Materials

                  Subordination and Coordination

                  When a Subpoint Doesn’t Fit

Using Organizing Words and Sentences

                  Transitions

                  Signposts

                  Internal Preview and Internal Summaries

Introducing Your Speech

Gain Audience Attention

                 Tell a Story or Anecdote

                 Signal Your Thesis

                 Show Your Audience What’s in It for Them

Establish Your Credibility

Preview Your Main Points

Concluding Your Speech

Transition to Your Conclusion

Summarize Your Main Points

Finish with a Memorable Clincher

                 Tie Your Clincher to the Introduction

                 End with a Striking Sentence or Phrase

                 Highlight Your Thesis

                 Conclude with an Emotional Message

                  End with a Story or Anecdote

Outlining Your Speech

                 Two Stages of Outlining

                           The Working Outline

                           The Speaking Outline

                 Creating Your Working Outline

                           Outlining the Body of Your Speech

                           Outlining Your Introduction

                           Outlining Your Conclusion

                           Creating a Bibliography

                           Inserting the Title, Specific Purpose, or Thesis

                 A Sample Working Outline

                 Creating Your Speaking Outline

                           Formatting Your Speaking Outline

                           Elements of Your Speaking Outline

                 A Sample Speaking Outline

Chapter Review

15    DELIVERING YOUR SPEECH
Selecting the Right Mode of Delivery

Reading from a Manuscript

Memorizing from a Manuscript

Extemporaneous: Speaking from an Outline

Impromptu: Speaking without Preparation

Using Vocal Delivery Skills

Volume

Tone

Rate of Delivery

Projection

Articulation

Pronunciation

Pausing

Using Nonverbal Delivery Skills

Eye Contact

Gestures

Physical Movement

Proxemics

Personal Appearance

Presentation Aids

                 Using Presentation Aids in Your Speech

                         Presentation Aids Can Make Your Speech More Interesting

                         Presentation Aids Can Simplify a Complex Topic

                         Presentation Aids Can Help Your Audience Remember Your Speech

                 Guidelines for Developing Presentation Aids

                         Consider the Forum

                         Consider Your Audience

                         Make Sure Your Aids Support Your Points

                         Keep Your Aids Simple and Clear

                         Use Technology Wisely

                          Rehearse with Your Presentation Aids

Using Presentation Aids During Your Speech

                 Make Sure Everyone Can See and Hear Your Aids

                 Control Audience Interaction with Your Aids

                 Remember the Purpose of Your Aids

Chapter Review

16  INFORMATIVE SPEAKING
Techniques for Informing                                                                                                    
   Definition

Explanation

Description

Demonstration

Narrative

Types of Informative Speeches

Objects

Individuals or Groups

Events

Processes

Ideas

Developing Your Informative Speech

Analyzing Your Audience

Selecting a Technique

Focusing on Your Goal to Inform

Clarifying and Simplifying Your Message

                Move from General to Specific

                Reduce the Quantity of Information You Present

                Make Complex Information Seem Familiar

                Use Presentation Aids

                Reiterate Your Message

                Repeat Your Message 

Chapter Review

17   PERSUASIVE SPEAKING
The Nature of a Persuasive Speech

Persuasive Speeches Attempt to Influence Audience Members

              Strengthen Audience Commitment

              Weaken Audience Commitment

               Promote Audience Action

Persuasive Speeches Advocate Fact, Value, or Policy Claims

Tailoring Your Persuasive Message to the Audience

Adapting to Audience Disposition

Appealing to Your Audience’s Needs

Connecting to Your Listener’s Values

Demonstrating How Your Audience Benefits

Acknowledging Listeners’ Reservations

Building Blocks of Persuasion

Ethos: Your Credibility as a Speaker

             Understanding the Elements of Credibility

             Building Your Credibility

             Avoiding Loss of Your Credibility

Logos: The Evidence and Reasoning Behind Your Message

             Using Evidence

             Using Reasoning

                          Example Reasoning

                          Comparison Reasoning

                          Sign Reasoning

                          Causal Reasoning

             Avoiding Logical Fallacies

                         Hasty Generalization

                         Causal Reasoning Errors

                         Ad Populum Fallacy

                         Straw Person Fallacy

                         Slippery Slope Fallacy

Pathos: Evoking Your Listener’s Emotions

             Using Emotional Appeals

             Ensuring Ethical Use of Pathos

Organizing Your Persuasive Speech

            Criteria-Application Pattern

            Categorical Pattern

            Moore’s Motivated Sequence

            Problem-Cause-Solution Pattern

Chapter Review