Fourth Edition   ©2012

Sources of The Making of the West, Volume I: To 1750

Peoples and Cultures

Katharine J. Lualdi (University of Southern Maine)

  • ISBN-10: 0-312-57611-0; ISBN-13: 978-0-312-57611-0; Format: Paper Text, 384 pages

CHAPTER 1 Early Western Civilization, 4000-1000 B.C.E. 
1. Defining Humanity: Epic of Gilgamesh (c. 2000 B.C.E.) 
2. Establishing Law and Justice: King Hammurabi, The Code of Hammurabi (Early Eighteenth Century B.C.E.) 
*3. Praising the One God: Hymn to the Aten (Fourteenth Century B.C.E.)
4. Writing Experiences: Egyptian Scribal Exercise Book (Twelfth Century B.C.E.) 
5. Allying for Peace: The “Eternal Treaty” between the Egyptians and Hittites (c. 1259 B.C.E.)
CHAPTER 2 Empires in the Near East and the Re-Emergence of Civilization in Greece, 1000-500 B.C.E. 
1. Empires and Divine Right: Inscription Honoring Cyrus, King of Persia (r. c. 557-530 B.C.E.) 
2. Monotheism and Mosaic Law: The Book of Exodus, Chapters 19-20 (c.  Tenth-Sixth Centuries B.C.E.) 
*3. The Quest for Individual Excellence (Arête): Homer, The Odyssey (Eighth Century B.C.E.)
4. Two Visions of the City-State: Tyrtaeus of Sparta and Solon of Athens, Poems (Seventh-Sixth Centuries B.C.E.) 
*5. Economics and the Expansion of Slavery: Xenophon, Revenues (Fourth Century B.C.E.)
CHAPTER 3 The Greek Golden Age, c. 500-c. 400 B.C.E. 
1. The Golden Age of Athens: Thucydides, The Funeral Oration of Pericles (429 B.C.E.)
*2.  Movement in Stone: Myron of Eleutherai, Discus Thrower (c. 450 B.C.E.)
3. The Emergence of Philosophy: Plato, The Apology of Socrates (399 B.C.E.) 
4. The Advance of Science: Hippocrates of Cos, On the Sacred Disease (400 B.C.E.)
5. Domestic Boundaries: Euphiletus, A Husband Speaks in His Own Defense (c. 400 B.C.E.) and Overhead Views of a House on the North Slope of the Areopagus (Fifth Century B.C.E.)
6. Protesting War, Performing Satire: Aristophanes, Lysistrata (411 B.C.E.)
CHAPTER 4 From the Classical to the Hellenistic World, 400-30 B.C.E.
1. The Conquest of New Lands: Arrian, The Campaigns of Alexander the Great (Fourth Century B.C.E.) 
2. Imperial Bureaucracy: Zeno, Egyptian Official, Records (259-250 B.C.E.) 
3. Everyday Life: Funerary Inscriptions and Epitaphs (Fifth-First Centuries B.C.E.) 
4. In Pursuit of Happiness: Epicurus, Letter to a Friend (Late Third Century B.C.E.) 
*5. Exacting Science: Archimedes, Letter to Eratosthenes (Third Century B.C.E.) and Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, Archimedes's “Eureka!” Moment (c.  30-20 B.C.E.)
CHAPTER 5 The Rise of Rome and Its Republic, 753-44 B.C.E. 
1. Formalizing Roman Law: The Twelve Tables (451-449 B.C.E.) 
2. Artistic Influences: Etruscan Statuette of a Rider (c. 434-400 B.C.E.) and Roman Bust of Lucius Junius Brutus (c. 300 B.C.E.) 
3. Status and Discrimination: Roman Women Demonstrate against the Oppian Law (195 B.C.E.) 
4. “Cultivating Justice and Piety”: Cicero, On the Commonwealth (54 B.C.E.) 
5. Failure and Factionalism: The Gracchan Reforms (133 B.C.E.) 
6. Toward Empire: Julius Caesar, The Gallic War (52 B.C.E.) 
CHAPTER 6 The Creation of the Roman Empire, 44 B.C.E.-284 C.E. 
*1. An Empire Foretold: Virgil, The Aeneid (First Century B.C.E.)
2. An Urban Empire: Notices and Graffiti Describe Life in Pompeii (First Century C.E.)
3. New Influences to the North: Tacitus, Germania (c. 98 C.E.)
*4. The Making of a New Religion: Paul of Tarsus, Letter to the Galatians (First Century C.E.)
*5. The Cult of Isis: Apulieus, The Golden Ass (c. 170 C.E.)
CHAPTER 7 The Transformation of the Roman Empire, 284-600 C.E. 
1. The Establishment of Roman Christian Doctrine: Arius, Letter to Alexander, Bishop of Alexandria (c. 320 C.E.) and The Nicene Creed (325 C.E.) 
*2. The Struggle of Conversion: Augustine of Hippo, Confessions (c. 397)
*3. The Development of Monasticism: Benedict of Nursia, The Rule of Saint Benedict (c. 540) 
4. Germanic Law in the Roman Empire: The Burgundian Code (c. 475-525 C.E.) 
5. Emergence of Byzantium: Procopius, Secret History (550 C.E.) 
CHAPTER 8 The Heirs of Rome: Islam, Byzantium, and Europe, 600-750 
1. The Foundations of Islam: Qur'an, Suras 1, 53, 98 (c. 610-632) 
2. Jihad and Jizya: Islamic Terms of Peace (633-643) 
3. Byzantine Life: The Life of St. Theodore of Sykeon (Early Seventh Century) 
4. A Noblewoman's Life: The Life of Lady Balthild, Queen of the Franks (Late Seventh Century) 
5. Roman Christian Missions: Pope Gregory the Great, Letters (598-601) 
CHAPTER 9 From Centralization to Fragmentation, 750-1050 
1. The Rule of Charlemagne: General Capitulary for the Missi (802) 
2. Resistance from Constantinople: Liutprand of Cremona, Report to Otto I (968) 
*3. The Macedonian Renaissance: Harbaville Triptych (c. 950)
4. A New Islamic Dynasty: Ahmad  al- Ya'qu¯bi¯, Kita¯b  al- bulda¯n (Ninth Century) 
5. Advances in Medicine: Abu¯ Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakari¯yu¯  Al- ra¯zi¯, A Treatise on the  Small- Pox and Measles (c. 910)  
6. The Faithful Vassal: Fulbert of Chartres, Letter to William of Aquitaine (1020) 
CHAPTER 10 Commercial Quickening and Religious Reform, 1050-1150
*1. Medieval Business: Commenda Contracts (Eleventh-Twelfth Centuries)
2. Sources of the Investiture Conflict: Emperor Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII, Letter and Excommunication (1076) 
3. Calling the First Crusade: Fulcher of Chartres, Pope Urban II's Speech at Clermont (1095) 
4. Arab Response to the First Crusade: Ibn  al- Athi¯r, A Muslim Perspective (1097-1099) 
*5. The Power of William I: The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (1085-1086) and Domesday Book (1086-1087) 
CHAPTER 11 The Flowering of the Middle Ages, 1150-1215 
*1. New Learning: Peter Abelard, The Story of My Misfortunes (c. 1132)
2. Scholarly Pursuits and Youthful Frolics: Medieval University Life (Twelfth-Early Thirteenth Centuries)  
*3. Courtly Love: Chrétien de Troyes, Lancelot: The Knight of the Cart (c. 1170s)
4. Franciscan Piety: St. Francis and St. Clare of Assisi, Selected Writings (Thirteenth Century) 
5. The Sack of Constantinople: Annals of Niketas Choniate¯s (1204) 
CHAPTER 12 The Medieval Synthesis-and Its Cracks, 1215-1340 
*1. Reconciling Faith and Reason: Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae (1273)
2. A Female Mystic: Hadewijch of Brabant, Letters and Poems (1220-1240) 
3. Defining Outsiders: Thomas of Monmouth, The Life and Martyrdom of St. William of Norwich (c. 1173)
4. Imagining Hell: Dante Alighieri, Divine Comedy (1313-1321) 
*5. The New Power of Medieval States: Boniface VIII¸ Unam Sanctam (1302) and King Philip IV of France, General Assembly of Paris (1303) 
CHAPTER 13 Crisis and Renaissance, 1340-1492 
1. Demographic Catastrophe: The Black Death (Fourteenth Century) 
2. Crisis and Change: Thomas Walsingham: Peasant Rebels in London (1381) 
3. Satirizing the Church: Geoffrey Chaucer, The Pardoner's Prologue (1387-1400) 
4.  Preaching Reform: Jan Hus, Letters (1408-1415)
5. Extolling Humanism: Giovanni Rucellai and Leonardo Bruni, Florence in the Quattrocento (1427 and 1457) 
6. Women's Place in Renaissance Italy: Alessandra, Letters from a Widow and Matriarch of a Great Family (1450-1465) 
CHAPTER 14  Global Encounters and the Shock of the Reformation, 1492-1560 
1. Worlds Collide: Bernal Díaz del Castillo, The True History of the Conquest of New Spain (c. 1567) 
2. Illustrating a Native Perspective: Lienzo de Tlaxcala (c. 1560) 
3. Defending Native Humanity: Bartolomé de Las Casas, In Defense of the Indians (c. 1548-1550) 
4. Scripture and Salvation: Martin Luther, Freedom of a Christian (1520) 
5. Reforming Christianity: John Calvin, Articles Concerning Predestination (c. 1560) and The Necessity of Reforming the Church (1543) 
6. Responding to Reformation: St. Ignatius of Loyola, A New Kind of Catholicism (1546, 1549, 1553)  
CHAPTER 15 Wars of Religion and Clash of Worldviews, 1560-1648 
1. Legislating Tolerance: Henry IV, Edict of Nantes (1598) 
2. Barbarians All: Michel de Montaigne, Of Cannibals (1580s) 
*3. Defending Religious Liberty: Apology of the Bohemian Estates (May 25, 1618)
4. The Scientific Challenge: Galileo, Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina (1615) 
5. The Persecution of Witches: The Trial of Suzanne Gaudry (1652) 
CHAPTER 16 Absolutism, Constitutionalism, and the Search for Order, 1640-1715
*1. Mercantilism in the Colonies: Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Instructions (1667, 1668) and A Royal Ordinance (1669)
*2. Regime Change: The Trial of Charles I (January 1649)
3. Civil War and Social Contract: Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan (1651) 
4. The Consent of the Governed: John Locke, The Second Treatise of Government (1690) 
5. Opposing Serfdom: Ludwig Fabritius, The Revolt of Stenka Razin (1670) 
CHAPTER 17 The Atlantic System and Its Consequences, 1700-1750  
1. Captivity and Enslavement: Olaudah Equiano, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano Written by Himself (1789) 
2. A “Sober and Wholesome Drink”: A Brief Description of the Excellent Vertues of That Sober and Wholesome Drink, Called Coffee (1674)
*3.  Westernizing Russian Culture: Peter I, Decrees and Statutes (1701-1723)
*4.  Early Enlightenment: Voltaire, Letters Concerning the English Nation (1733)
5. Questioning Women's Submission: Mary Astell, Reflections upon Marriage (1706) 
*New to this edition


Related Titles