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Understanding Quotations

Using Quotations

Modifying Quotations

Integrating Quotations


Understanding Paraphrases

Writing Paraphrases

Integrating Paraphrases


Understanding Summaries

Writing Summaries

Integrating Summaries


How to Work with Information from Sources

Using Signal Phrases

Passage from Rianne's Draft:

According to Patty Smith, a Colorado public school teacher, "Bill 186 does not consider that many students who have just entered the school system and who do not yet speak English are very bright kids-their English is just not at the level it needs to be. Given time, their test scores will improve. But it's not fair to discriminate against these kids."5

Another state legislator, Paul Zimmerman, D-Thornton, condemns the Bill, saying, "It digs a hole, it kicks these kids in, and then it allows no escape."8

Colorado public school teacher Andrew Mays asks, "Are these schools going to want students who are not proficient in English, who have mental or physical handicaps, or who come from families with limited economic means? Probably not, so they will begin discriminating against children who might bring test averages down."10

Senator Pat Pascoe asserts, "There is no reason to believe a charter school takeover would improve educational achievement. State studies have not shown that charter schools are any more effective than other schools, if one compares schools with children at the same socioeconomic level."11

In the examples on the right, Rianne used several different signal phrases to attribute quotations and integrate them seamlessly into her document. The signal phrases are shown in red. Notice the variety of attributions Rianne uses as signal phrases to introduce the quotations. Rianne also used endnotes to identify her sources, in keeping with the Chicago-style documentation system she had chosen.

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