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Understanding Quotations

Using Quotations

Modifying Quotations

Integrating Quotations


Understanding Paraphrases

Writing Paraphrases

Integrating Paraphrases


Understanding Summaries

Writing Summaries

Integrating Summaries


How to Work with Information from Sources

Understanding Quotations and Their Use

Quotations can be used to introduce an idea, to support or clarify a point or term, or to illustrate positions on an issue. You should use direct quotations when:

  • you want to use an author's or expert's exact words.
  • you want to use the exact words of someone who has firsthand experience with the issue you are researching.
  • a passage in a source features an idea that you want to argue for or against.
  • a passage in a source provides a clear and concise statement that would enhance your project document.

Quotations can be parts of sentences (partial), whole sentences (complete), or long passages (block).

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