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Chicago-style bibliography

A bibliography, which appears at the end of your paper, lists every work you have cited in your notes; in addition, it may include works that you consulted but did not cite. This section provides advice on constructing the list. For a sample bibliography, click here.

Model notes and bibliographic entries

The following guidelines are consistent with guidelines set forth in The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th ed. For each type of source, a model note appears first, followed by a model bibliographic entry. The model note shows the format you should use when citing a source for the first time. For subsequent citations of a source, use shortened notes.

The following models illustrate Chicago-style notes and bibliographic entries for books. For information on other types of notes and bibliographic entries, choose one of the following options:

Books | Articles in periodicals | Electronic sources | Other sources

Directory to Chicago-style notes and bibliographic entries



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1. Basic format for a book

          1. Robert Service, A History of Twentieth-Century
Russia (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998),

Service, Robert. A History of Twentieth-Century
          Russia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press,

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2. Two or three authors

          2. Rudolph O. de la Garza, Z. Anthony Kruszewski,
and Tomás A. Arciniega, Chicanos and Native Americans:
The Territorial Minorities (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.:
Prentice-Hall, 1973), 8.

Garza, Rudolph O. de la, Z. Anthony Kruszewski, and
          Tomás A. Arciniega. Chicanos and Native
          Americans: The Territorial Minorities. Englewood
          Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1973.

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3. Four or more authors

          3. Gary B. Nash et al., The American People. 4th
ed. (New York: Addison Wesley Longman, 1998), 164.

Nash, Gary B., et al. The American People. 4th ed. New
           York: Addision Wesley Longman, 1998.

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4. Unknown Author

          4. The Men's League Handbook on Women's Suffrage
(London, 1912), 23.

The Men's League Handbook on Women's Suffrage. London,

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5. Edited work without an author

          5. Marshall Sklare, ed., Understanding American
Jewry (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books, 1982),

Sklare, Marshall, ed. Understanding American Jewry.
           New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books, 1982.

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6. Edited work with an author

           6. William L. Riordon, Plunkitt of Tammany Hall,
ed. Terrence J. McDonald (Boston: Bedford Books,
1994), 33.

Riordon, William L. Plunkitt of Tammany Hall. Edited
by Terrence J. McDonald. Boston: Bedford Books,

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7. Translated work

          7. Gabriel García Márquez. News of a
Kidnapping. Translated by Edith Grossman (New York:
Knopf, 1997), 154-678.

García Márquez, Gabriel. News of a Kidnapping. Trans-
          lated by Edith Grossman. New York: Knopf, 1997.

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8. Edition other than the first

          8. Andrew F. Rolle, California: A History, 5th
ed. (Wheeling, Ill.: Harlan Davidson, 1998), 243-46.

          Rolle, Andrew F. California: A History. 5th ed.
Wheeling, Ill.: Harlan Davidson, 1998.

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9. Untitled volume in a multivolume work

          9. New Cambridge Modern History (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1957), 1:52-53.

New Cambridge Modern History. Vol. 1. Cambridge:
          Cambridge University Press, 1957.

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10. Titled volume in a multivolume work

          10. Horst Boog et al., The Attack on the Soviet
Union, vol. 4 of Germany and the Second World War
(Cambridge: Oxford University Press, 1998), 70-72.

Boog, Horst, et al. The Attack on the Soviet Union.
          Vol. 4 of Germany and the Second World War.
          Cambridge: Oxford University Press, 1998.

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11. Work in an anthology

          11. Roland Barthes, "The Discourse of History,"
in The Postmodern History Reader, ed. Keith
Jenkins (New York: Routledge, 1997), 121.

Barthes, Roland. "The Discourse of History." In The
          Postmodern History Reader, edited by Keith
          Jenkins. New York: Routledge, 1997.

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12. Work in a series

          12. Robert M. Laughlin, Of Cabbages and Kings:
Tales from Zinacantán, Smithsonian Contributions to
Anthropology, vol. 23 (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian
Institution Press, 1977), 14.

Laughlin, Robert M. Of Cabbages and Kings: Tales from
          Zinacantán. Smithsonian Contributions to
          Anthropology, vol. 23. Washington, D.C.:
          Smithsonian Institution Press, 1977.

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13. Encyclopedia or dictionary

          13. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., s.v.

Note: The abbreviation "s.v." is for the Latin sub verbo ("under the word").

Encyclopedias and dictionaries are usually not included in the bibliography.

Model Notes
Sample Paper
Finding Sources


Copyright © 1998, 1999, Bedford/St. Martin's