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Chicago-style manuscript format

The following guidelines on manuscript formatting are based on The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th ed.

Title and identification
On the title page, include the full title of your paper and your name. Your instructor may also want you to include the course title, the instructor's name, and the date. Do not type a number on the title page but count it in the manuscript; that is, the first page of text will usually be numbered page 2. In the unusual case that your paper includes extensive preliminary material such as a table of contents, list of illustrations, or preface, you may be required to number that material separately. See a sample title page.

Margins and spacing
Leave margins of at least one inch at the top, bottom, and sides of the page. Double-space the entire manuscript, including block quotations, but single-space individual entries in notes and the bibliography.

Pagination
Using arabic numerals, number all pages except the title page in the upper right corner. Depending on your instructor's preference, you may also use a short title or your last name before page numbers to help identify pages in case they come loose from your manuscript. (See a sample Chicago-style manuscript page.)


Preparing the endnotes page

See the sample endnotes that accompany a paper in Chicago style. (You may choose to or be required to use foonotes instead.) Endnote pages should be numbered consecutively with the rest of the manuscript, and the title "Notes" should be centered on the first page about one inch from the top of the page. Indent only the first line of each entry one-half inch (or five spaces) and begin the note with the arabic numeral corresponding to the number in the text. Follow the number with a period and one space. Do not indent any other lines of the entry. Single-space individual notes but double-space between notes.

Authors and dates
Authors' names are not inverted in notes. With two or more authors, use "and," not an ampersand (&). In notes for works with four or more authors, use the first author's name followed by "et al."

Page numbers
Page numbers are not preceded by the abbreviation "p." or "pp."


Preparing the bibliography page

Typically, the notes in Chicago-style papers are followed by a bibliography, an alphabetically arranged list of all of the works cited or consulted. See our sample bibliography in Chicago style.

Type the title "Bibliography," centered, about one inch from the top of the page. Number bibliography pages consecutively with the rest of the paper. Begin each entry at the left margin, and indent any additional lines one-half inch (or five spaces). Single-space individual entries but double-space between entries.

Alphabetizing the list
Alphabetize the bibliography by the last names of the authors (or editors); when a work has no author or editor, alphabetize by the first word of the title other than A, An, or The.

If your list includes two or more works by the same author, use three dashes (or three hyphens) instead of the author's name in all entries after the first. You may arrange the entries alphabetically by title or chronologically; be consistent throughout the bibliography.

Authors and dates
Invert the name of the first author or editor. With two or more authors, use "and," not an ampersand (&). For works with four or more authors, use the first author's name, inverted, followed by "et al."

Note:
The sample notes and bibliography pages show you how to type bibliographic information for Chicago-style papers. For more information about the exact format of notes and bibliography entries, click here.


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Footnote
Bibliography
Model Notes
Manuscript
Sample Paper
Finding Sources
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