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* Humanities: Documenting Sources
MLA list of works cited
A list of works cited, which appears at the end of your research paper, gives publication information for each of the sources you have cited in the paper. Start on a new page and title your list "Works Cited." Then list in alphabetical order all the sources that you have cited in the paper. Unless your instructor asks for them, do not include sources not actually cited in the paper even if you read them.

Alphabetize the list by the last names of the authors (or editors); if a work has no author or editor, alphabetize by the first word of the title other than A, An, or The.

Do not indent the first line of each works cited entry, but indent any additional lines one-half inch (or five spaces). This technique highlights the names by which the list has been alphabetized. For an example, see the Works Cited pages in this section of the site.

The following models illustrate the form that the Modern Language Association (MLA) recommends for works cited entries. Citation guidelines for electronic sources appear below. For information on other types of works cited entries, choose one of the following options:

Books | Articles in periodicals | Electronic sources | Other sources

Directory to MLA works cited entries for Electronic Sources


Electronic Sources

The documentation style for electronic sources presented in this section is consistent with MLA's most recent guidelines, which can be found at http://www.mla.org or in The MLA Style Manual, 2nd ed. (New York: 1998). If your instructor prefers that you follow the Columbia Online Style developed by Janice Walker and endorsed by the Alliance for Computers and Writing, see http://www.cas.usf.edu/english/walker/mla.html.

Note: When an Internet address in a works cited entry must be divided at the end of a line, break it after a slash. Do not insert a hyphen.

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30. Online scholarly project or reference database
For an online source accessed from within a larger scholarly project or reference database, begin with the author (if any) and title of the source, followed by any editors or translators. Use quotation marks for titles of short works such as poems and articles; underline or italicize book and periodical titles. Include publication information for any print version of the source before giving the title of the online project or database (underlined or italicized), followed by the author or editor of the project or database, the date of electronic publication (or latest update), page or paragraph numbers (if any), the name of any institution or organization sponsoring or associated with the site, the date of access and the electronic address, or URL, of the source (in angle brackets).

Dickinson, Emily. "Hope." Poems by Emily Dickinson.

          3rd ser. Boston, 1896. Project Bartleby Archive.

          Ed. Steven van Leeuwen. Dec. 1995. Columbia U. 2

          Feb. 1998 <http://www.columbia.edu/acis/


"Gog and Magog." The Encyclopedia Mythica. Ed. Micha

          F. Lindemans. 2 Jan. 1998. 31 Jan. 1998 <http://



To refer to an entire scholarly project, begin with the title of the project.

The Einstein Papers Project. Ed. Robert Schulmann. 9

          Nov. 1997. Boston U. 29 Jan. 1998 <http://


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31. Personal or professional web site
For a citation of a personal or professional Web site, begin with the creator of the site (if available) and continue with the title of the site (or a description such as "Home page" if no title is available), the date of publication or of the latest update, the name of any organization associated with the site, the date of access, and the URL.

Spanoudis, Steve, Bob Blair, and Nelson Miller. Poets'

          Corner. 2 Feb. 1998. 4 Feb. 1998. <http://


Blue Note Records. 19 Mar. 1998. Blue Note Records. 25

          Mar. 1998 <http://www.bluenote.com>.

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32. Online Book
For citation to books available online, include all available information required for printed books , followed by the date of access and the URL.

Brontë, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. 1846. 16 Mar. 1998


If the online book is part of a scholarly project or reference database, follow any information about the printed book with information about the project or database .

Brown, William W. Narrative of William W. Brown, an

          American Slave. Written by Himself. London, 1849.

          Documenting the American South: The Southern

          Experience in Nineteenth-Century America. Ed.

          Natalia Smith. 1996. Academic Affairs Lib., U of

          North Carolina, Chapel Hill. 9 Feb. 1998 <http://


Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein. An Online Library of

          Literature. Ed. Peter Galbavy. 22 Apr. 1998. 23

          June 1998 <http://www.literature.org/Works/


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33. Article in an online periodical
When citing online articles, follow the guidelines for printed articles, giving whatever information is available in the online source. At the end of the citation, include the date of access and the URL.

Baucom, Ian. "Charting the Black Atlantic." Postmodern

          Culture 8.1 (1997): 28 pars. 3 Feb. 1998 <http://



Romano, Jay. "Computers That Tend the Home." New York

          Times on the Web 14 Mar. 1998 <http://



Coontz, Stephanie. "Family Myths, Family Realities."

          Salon 12 Dec. 1997. 3 Feb. 1998 <http://



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34. Online posting
Begin with the author's name, followed by the title or subject line (in quotation marks), the posting date, the words "Online posting," the list or group name, any identifying number of the posting, the date of access, and the URL or the e-mail address of the list.

Crosby, Connie. "Literary Criticism." 2 Feb. 1996.

          Online posting. Café Utne. 17 Mar. 1998 <http://



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35. E-mail
For correspondence received via electronic mail, include the author, the subject line (if any) in quotation marks, and the word "E-mail" followed by the recipient and the date of the message.

Schubert, Josephine. "Re: Culture Shock." E-mail to

          the author. 14 Mar. 1998.

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36. Synchronous communication
To cite a synchronous communication posted in a MUD or a MOO, include the speaker's name (if relevant), a description and the date of the event, the title of the forum, the date of access, and the URL. If an archival version of the communication is unavailable, include the telnet address.

Kelley, Heather. Jill's Borderland Tour of DU. 14 Dec.

          1995. Borderlands MOOspace. 16 Mar. 1998 <http://


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37. Other online sources
For other materials accessed online, cite them as you would otherwise, including identifying labels where necessary. End the citation with the access date and the URL.

"No More Kings." Animation. America Rock. Schoolhouse

          Rock. ABC. 1975. 16 Mar. 1998 <http://



"City of New Orleans, LA." Map. Yahoo! Maps. Yahoo!

          1998. 4 Feb. 1998 <http://maps.yahoo.com/yahoo>.

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38. CD-ROM issued in a single edition
Some works on CD-ROM, such as dictionaries and encylopedias, are released in single editions that are not updated periodically. Treat such sources as you would a book, but give the medium ("CD-ROM") before the publication information.

Sheehy, Donald, ed. Robert Frost: Poems, Life, Legacy.

          CD-ROM. New York: Holt, 1997.

"Picasso. Pablo." The 1997 Grolier Multimedia

          Encyclopedia. CD-ROM. Danbury: Grolier, 1997.

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39. CD-ROM issued periodically
CD-ROM databases that are produced periodically (monthly or quarterly, for example) may contain previously published material, such as journal or newspaper articles, or material that has not been previously published, such as reports. In either case, cite such material as you would a printed source, followed by the title of the database (underlined or italicized), the medium ("CD-ROM"), the name of the company producing the CD-ROM, and the date of electronic publication.

Bohlen, Celestine. "Albania Struggles to Contain

          Dissent over Lost Investments." New York Times 11

          Feb. 1997, late ed.: A9. InfoTrac: General

          Periodicals ASAP. CD-ROM. Information Access. 13

          Feb. 1997.

Wattenberg, Ruth. "Helping Students in the Middle."

          American Educator 19.4 (1996): 2-18. ERIC. CD-

          ROM. SilverPlatter. Sept. 1996.

English and Other Humanities
MLA in-text citations
MLA list of works cited
MLA information center
MLA manuscript format
Sample Paper: MLA style
Finding Sources


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