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* Humanities: Documenting Sources
MLA list of works cited
A list of works cited, which appears at the end of your research paper, gives publication information for each of the sources you have cited in the paper. Start on a new page and title your list "Works Cited." Then list in alphabetical order all the sources that you have cited in the paper. Unless your instructor asks for them, do not include sources not actually cited in the paper even if you read them.

Alphabetize the list by the last names of the authors (or editors); if a work has no author or editor, alphabetize by the first word of the title other than A, An, or The.

Do not indent the first line of each works cited entry, but indent any additional lines one-half inch (or five spaces). This technique highlights the names by which the list has been alphabetized. For an example, see the Works Cited pages in this section of the site.

The following models illustrate the form that the Modern Language Association (MLA) recommends for works cited entries. Citation guidelines for several miscellaneous sources appear below. For information on works cited entries for books, periodicals, or electronic sources, choose the appropriate option:

Books | Articles in periodicals | Electronic sources | Other sources

Directory to MLA works cited entries for Other sources


Other sources

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40. Government publication
Treat the government agency as the author, giving the name of the government followed by the name of the agency.

United States. Bureau of the Census. Statistical

          Abstract of the United States. 117th ed.

          Washington: GPO, 1997.

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41. Pamphlet
Cite a pamphlet as you would a book.

United States. Dept. of the Interior. Natl. Park

          Service. National Design Competition for an

          Indian Memorial: Little Bighorn Battlefield

          National Monument. Washington: GPO, 1996.

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42. Published dissertation
Cite a published dissertation as you would a book, underlining (or italicizing) the title and giving the place of publication, the publisher, and the year of publication. After the title, add the word "Diss.," the name of the institution, and the year the dissertation was written.

Damberg, Cheryl L. Healthcare Reform: Distributional

          Consequences of an Employer Mandate for Workers

          in Small Firms. Diss. Rand Graduate School, 1995.

          Santa Monica: Rand, 1996.

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43. Unpublished dissertation
Begin with the author's name, followed by the dissertation title in quotation marks, the word "Diss.," the name of the institution, and the year the dissertation was written.

Healey, Catherine. "Joseph Conrad's Impressionism."

          Diss. U of Massachusetts, 1997.

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44. Abstract of a dissertation
Cite as you would an unpublished dissertation. After the dissertation date, give the abbreviation DA or DAI (for Dissertation Abstracts or Dissertation Abstracts International), followed by the volume number, the date of publication, and the page number.

Chun, Maria Bow Jun. "A Study of Multicultural

          Activities in Hawaii's Public Schools." Diss. U

          of Hawaii, 1996. DAI 57 (1997): 2813A.

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45. Published proceedings of a conference
Cite published conference proceedings as you would a book, adding information about the conference after the title.

Chattel, Servant, or Citizen: Women's Status in

          Church, State, and Society. Proc. of Irish Conf.

          of Historians, 1993, Belfast. Belfast: Inst. of

          Irish Studies, 1995.

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46. Work of art
Cite the artist's name, followed by the title of the artwork, usually underlined, and the institution and city in which the artwork can be found.

Constable, John. Dedham Vale. Victoria and Albert

          Museum, London.

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47. Musical composition
Cite the composer's name, followed by the title of the work. Underline the title of an opera, a ballet, or a composition identified by name, but do not underline or use quotation marks around a composition identified by number or form.

Copland, Aaron. Appalachian Spring.

Shostakovich, Dmitri. Quartet no. 1 in C, op. 49.

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48. Personal letter
To cite a letter you have received, begin with the writer's name and add the phrase "Letter to the author," followed by the date.

Cipriani, Karen. Letter to the author. 25 Apr. 1998.

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49. Lecture or public address
Cite the speaker's name, followed by the title of the lecture (if any) in quotation marks, the organization sponsoring the lecture, the location, and the date.

Middleton, Frank. "Louis Hayden and the Role of the

          Underground Railroad in Boston." Boston Public

          Library, Boston. 6 Feb. 1998.

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50. Personal interview
To cite an interview that you conducted, begin with the name of the person interviewed. Then write "Personal interview," followed by the date of the interview.

Meeker, Dolores. Personal interview. 21 Apr. 1998.

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51. Published interview
Name the person interviewed, followed by the title of the interview, if there is one, in quotation marks, and the publication in which the interview was printed. If the interview does not have a title, include the word "Interview" after the interviewee's name.

Renoir, Jean. "Renoir at Home: Interview with Jean

          Renoir." Film Quarterly 50.1 (1996): 2_8.

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52. Radio or television interview
Name the person interviewed, followed by the word "Interview." Then give the title of the program, underlined (or italicized), and identifying information about the broadcast.

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. Interview. Charlie Rose. PBS.

          WNET, New York. 13 Feb. 1997.

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53. Film or videotape
Begin with the title. For a film, cite the director and the lead actors or narrator ("Perf." or "Narr."), followed by the distributor and year. For a videotape, add the word "Videocassette" before the name of the distributor.

The English Patient. Dir. Anthony Minghella. Perf.

          Ralph Fiennes, Juliette Binoche, Willem Dafoe,

          and Kristin Scott Thomas. Miramax, 1996.

Jane Eyre. Dir. Robert Young. Perf. Samantha Morton

          and Ciaran Hinds. Videocassette. New Video Group,


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54. Radio or television program
List the relevant information about the program in this order: the title of the program, underlined or italicized; the writer ("By"), director ("Dir."), narrator ("Narr."), producer ("Prod."), or main actors ("Perf."), if relevant; the series, neither underlined nor in quotation marks; the network; the local station (if any) on which you heard or saw the program and the city; and the date the program was broadcast. If a television episode or radio segment has a title, place that title, in quotation marks, before the program title.

"The New Face of Africa." The Connection. Host

          Christopher Lydon. Natl. Public Radio. WBUR,

          Boston. 27 Mar. 1998.

Primates. Wild Discovery. Discovery Channel. Boston.

          23 Mar. 1998.

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55. Live performance of a play
Begin with the title of the play, followed by the author ("By"). Then include specific information about the live performance: the director ("Dir."), the major actors ("Perf."), the theater company, the theater and its location, and the date of the performance.

Six Characters in Search of an Author. By Luigi

          Pirandello. Dir. Robert Brustein. Perf. Jeremy

          Geidt, David Ackroyd, Monica Koskey, and Marianne

          Owen. American Repertory Theatre, Cambridge. 14

          Jan. 1997.

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56. Sound recording
Begin with the composer (or author, if the recording is spoken), followed by the title of the piece. Next list pertinent artists (such as performers, readers, or musicians) and the orchestra and conductor. End with the manufacturer and the date.

If the recording is not on a CD, indicate the medium (such as "Audiocassette") before the manufacturer's name, followed by a period. Do not underline or italicize the name of the medium or enclose it in quotation marks.

Bizet, Georges. Carmen. Perf. Jennifer Larmore, Thomas

          Moser, Angela Gheorghiu, and Samuel Ramey.

          Bavarian State Orch. and Chorus. Cond. Giuseppe

          Sinopoli. Warner, 1996.

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57. Cartoon
Begin with the cartoonist's name, the title of the cartoon (if it has one) in quotation marks, the word "Cartoon," and the publication information for the publication in which the cartoon appears.

Adams, Scott. "Dilbert." Cartoon. Editorial Humor 3

          Mar. 1998: 9.

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58. Map or chart
Cite a map or chart as you would a book with an unknown author. Underline the title of the map or chart and add the word "Map" or "Chart" following the title.

Winery Guide to Northern and Central California. Map.

          Modesto: Compass Maps, 1996.

English and Other Humanities
MLA in-text citations
MLA list of works cited
MLA information center
MLA manuscript format
Sample Paper: MLA style
Finding Sources


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