A site, previously called The English Server, maintained by graduate students and faculty at Carnegie Mellon University that provides many links to literature-related sites. Topics include criticism, cultural theory, gender, race, the Internet, and rhetoric, as well as Marx and Engels. The site is referred to as a "member-run cooperative"; most writings are shared publicly, but some are available to members only. Mailing lists and discussion groups are accessible, and users can submit their own work for possible inclusion on the site.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World.
A database of information on more than 6,700 languages, including dialects, numbers of speakers, locations, and linguistic affiliation. Users can find out where a language and its related dialects are spoken and where their origins are by clicking on words and word sounds.
Internet Public Library Online Literary Criticism Collection.
Covers over 1,600 selective Web sites that offer quality biographical and critical information about writers and their works. Can be browsed by author, title, or period. Some links are to subscription sites, such as Project Muse, and may be restricted. Includes a link to a guide to finding criticism on the Web and in libraries.
Linguistics Resources on the Internet.
Provides links for every aspect of linguistics, including grammar and syntax, second-language teaching, language rights, and glossaries of key terms. Users can also find information on conferences, computing resources, journals, and newsletters.
A Literary Index: Internet Resources in Literature.
An index to literary resources on the Internet. The site includes links to special literary sites such as The Complete Works of William Shakespeare, as well as a section on researching literature on the Internet.
Literary Research Guide: An Annotated Listing of Reference Sources in English Literature.
A guide to tools and methods of literary scholarship, emphasizing English literature; includes thorough annotated lists of reference sources for advanced research. Maintained and frequently updated by James L. Harner of Texas A&M University, author of Literary Research Guide: An Annotated Listing of Reference Sources in English Literature. 3rd ed. New York: Modern Language Association, 1998.
Literary Resources on the Net.
A concise and select set of links on literature and criticism that provides a strong introduction to literary genres. Categories run the gamut from classical to twentieth century, to women's literature to nationalities.
The New Bartleby: A National Digital Library.
An electronic archive of texts selected for their significance and lasting value. Texts can be accessed from an alphabetical list of authors' names or through a keyword search.
The On-line Books Page.
A library of links to over 9,000 quality full-text books and serials in English and available through the Web. Maintained by John Mark Ockerbloom at the University of Pennsylvania, this site is constantly updated and includes an easy-to-use search feature; author, title, and subject indexes; and special exhibits on women writers, banned books, and prize winners.
Voice of the Shuttle: English Literature Main Page.
Voice of the Shuttle is an enormous, frequently updated site with links to sites in all of the humanities. The page for English literature is equally comprehensive and well maintained. Users can access links on all aspects of literature, such as minority literatures, and on specific periods to get information on both the literature and the culture of the period.
American Writers. 4 vols. New York: Scribner's, 1979-87. With supplements.
Offers essays analyzing the life and work of major American writers, arranged chronologically with an alphabetical index. Scribner's puts out similar series for British, Latin American, and European writers. Bloomsbury Guide to Women's Literature. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1992.
A thorough compilation of information on women's literature from around the world, from early times to the present. It provides concise and informative articles, and includes lengthy regional surveys at the front of the book. Coverage of non-Western women writers is particularly good. Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms. By Chris Baldick. Oxford: Clarendon, 1990.
Defines and briefly discusses terms used in current critical theory. Contemporary Literary Criticism. 116 vols. to date. Detroit: Gale, 1973-.
Brief biographical sketches of contemporary authors as well as substantial excerpts from reviews of their work and critical articles. Citations to original sources are included. Because a given writer may be covered in several volumes, consult the most recent cumulative index, which includes cross-references to other Gale biographical series. Contemporary Literary Criticism is a handy place to become familiar with a modern writer's critical reception. Dictionary of Literary Biography. 203 vols. to date. Detroit: Gale, 1978-.
Lengthy biographies of authors and some critical appraisal of their works. The volumes are arranged thematically, with a cumulative index in the last volume. Though this dictionary emphasizes American and British literary authors, it offers coverage of journalists, historians, and critics, as well as writers from other countries. Available in electronic format. Encyclopedia of World Literature in the Twentieth Century. 3rd ed. 5 vols. Detroit: St. James, 1998.
Covers twentieth-century authors and movements and provides lengthy surveys of the modern literature of countries around the world. International Encyclopedia of Linguistics. 4 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
Excellent, up-to-date scholarly articles on all aspects of linguistics. Literary Research Guide: An Annotated Listing of Reference Sources in English Literature. By James L. Harner. 3rd ed. New York: Modern Language Association, 1998.
A guide to tools and methods of literary scholarship, emphasizing English literature; includes thorough annotated lists of reference sources for advanced research. MLA International Bibliography of Books and Articles on the Modern Languages and Literatures. New York: Modern Language Association, 1921-.
The most important ongoing bibliography for literature and linguistics. Since 1980, the print edition has come out in two volumes each year— one with citations arranged in four categories (national literatures, linguistics, general literature, and folklore), and the other a subject index. It lists works of all kinds — books, journal articles, articles in books, dissertations — in many languages. Available in electronic format. The Oxford Companion to English Literature. Ed. Margaret Drabble. 5th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.
Brief descriptions of writers, literary works, schools and movements, and places of literary significance, alphabetically arranged. A number of Oxford Companions cover other national literatures and genres. The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 20 vols. Oxford: Clarendon, 1989. With supplements.
An invaluable source for understanding the various meanings of words and their changing definitions. It is unique in providing chronological examples, showing how a word has been used throughout history, and is unequaled in its depth of coverage. Available in electronic format.