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CBE reference list

Basic Format
Center the title "References" (or "Cited References") and then list the works that you have cited in the paper; do not include other works that you may have read. Double-space throughout.

Organization of the list
Number the entries in the order in which they appear in the text. If your paper contains tables or figures, you may cite them along with your text references in one numeric sequence. Or you may cite the tables and figures in a separate list, using a second numeric sequence.

Authors' names
Invert all authors' names. Use initials for first and middle names, with no periods after the initials and no space between them. Do not use a comma between the last name and the initials. Use all authors' names; do not use "et al."

Titles of books and articles
Capitalize only the first word in the title of a book or article (along with all proper nouns). Do not underline or italicize the titles of books; do not place titles of articles in quotation marks.

Titles of journals
Abbreviate titles of journals that consist of more than one word. Capitalize all the words or abbreviated words in the title (for example, Science, Sci Am, J Clin Psychopharmacol). Do not underline or italicize the title.

Page ranges
Abbreviate page ranges for articles in journals or periodicals and for chapters in edited volumes (for example, 51-3, 129-34). When an article appears on discontinuous pages, list all pages or page ranges (for example, 145-9, 162-74). Give the total number of pages for a book or an unpublished dissertation, followed by the abbreviation "p" (365 p).

The following models illustrate the CBE style for references for books. For information on other types of CBE references, choose one of the following options:

Books | Articles | Electronic sources | Other sources

Directory to CBE reference list for books



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1. Basic format for a book
After the author(s) and title, give the place of publication, the name of the publisher, and the date of publication. End with the number of pages in the book.

1 Dobson AP. Conservation and biodiversity. New York:

   Scientific American Library; 1996. 264 p.

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2. Two or more authors
List the authors in the order in which they appear on the title page.

2 Mehlman MJ, Botkin JR. Access to the genome: the

   challenge to equality. Washington: Georgetown Univ

   Pr; 1998. 152 p.

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3. Edition other than the first
Include the number of the edition after the title.

3 Griffiths AJF, Miller JH, Suzuki DT, Lewontin RC,

   Gelbart WM. An introduction to genetic analysis. 6th

   ed. New York: WH Freeman; 1996. 915 p.

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4. Article or chapter in an edited volume
Begin with the name of the author and the title of the article or chapter. Then write "In:" and name the editor or editors, followed by a comma and the word "editor" or "editors." Place the title of the volume and publication information next. End with the page numbers on which the article or chapter appears.

4 Halliday TR. Sexual selection and mate choice. In:

   Krebs JR, Davies NB, editors. Behavioral ecology: an

   evolutionary approach. Oxford: Blackwell; 1978. p


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CBE number system
CBE reference list
CBE manuscript format
Sample paper: CBE style
Finding Sources


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