APA references (bibliographic entries)
In APA style, the alphabetical list of works cited is called "References." This section presents specific models to follow while preparing each entry in your list, along with the following general advice.
Title and placement of list
The list of references begins on a new page at the end of your paper. Center the title "References" (without quotation marks) in the width of the page. See our sample reference pages.
Unless your instructor suggests otherwise, do not indent the first line of an entry, but indent any additional lines one-half inch (or five spaces), as follows:
Stoessinger, J. G. (1998). Why nations go to war (7th
ed.). New York: St. Martin's Press.
This technique, known as a "hanging indent," is used for final copy: student papers and actual journal articles. For manuscripts submitted to journals, APA requires paragraph-style indents, as follows:
Stoessinger, J. G. (1998). Why nations go to war
(7th ed.). New York: St. Martin's Press.
Throughout this section, documentation models are shown as final copy, with hanging indents. Use the format that your instructor prefers.
Alphabetizing the list
Alphabetize your list by the last names of the authors (or editors); if there is no author or editor, alphabetize by the first word of the title other than A, An, or The.
Invert all authors' names, and use initials instead of first names. With two or more authors, use an ampersand (&) rather than the word "and." Separate the names with commas. Use all authors' names; do not use "et al."
Place the date of publication in parentheses immediately after the last author's name.
Titles of books
Underline titles and subtitles of books; capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle (as well as all proper nouns).
Titles of articles
Do not place titles of periodical articles in quotation marks, and capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle (and all proper nouns).
Titles of periodicals
Capitalize titles of periodicals as you would capitalize them ordinarily. Underline the volume number of periodicals.
Use the abbreviation "p." (or "pp.") before page numbers of newspaper articles and works in anthologies, but do not use it before page numbers of articles appearing in magazines and scholarly journals. Provide inclusive page numbers, such as "pp. 203-214." If the page numbers of an article are discontinuous, provide all of them, separated by commas (for example, "A4, A5, A7").
You may use a short form of a publisher's name as long as it is easily recognizable.
The following models illustrate the APA style for references (bibliographic entries) for books. For information on other types of APA references, choose one of the following options:
Books | Articles in periodicals | Electronic sources | Other sources
Directory to APA references (bibliographic entries) for books
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