Race, Class, and Gender in the United States
Tenth Edition   ©2016

Race, Class, and Gender in the United States

An Integrated Study

Paula S. Rothenberg (Senior Fellow, The Murphy Institute, CUNY)

  • ISBN-10: 1-319-11751-1; ISBN-13: 978-1-319-11751-1; Format: e-Book Agency, 650 pages


Part I The Social Construction of Difference: Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality

7. Transgender Feminism: Queering the Woman Question

Susan Stryker

  • In this foundational piece Susan Stryker explores the relationship between sex, gender, and gender identity. She illustrates how even sex is socially constructed as it collapses complex and diverse physiology, biology, and genetics into only two available options: male or female

8. Debunking the Pathology of Poverty

Susan Greenbaum

  • Susan Greenbaum challenges the persistent myth that poor people are to blame for the economic conditions by looking at government, corporate and other structural factors that shape poverty historically and today.

Part II Understanding Racism, Sexism, Heterosexism and Class Privilege

3. Neither Black Nor White

Angelo Ancheta

  • Angelo Ancheta examines how Asian Americans have been racially positioned in the United States. Ancheta looks at anti-Asian violence and other examples of racial subordination. She further looks at how the dynamics of immigration and nativism effect how race is configured in the United States.

8. Intersectionality: An Everyday Metaphor Anyone Can Use.

Kimberlé Crenshaw interviewed by Bin Adewumni

  • In this piece Kimberle Crenshaw’s work on intersectionality, a term she coined in 1989, is revisited through an interview. Crenshaw reflects on the continued need for an accessible metaphor that captures the complexity of multiple and simultaneous forms of oppression, illustrating how, for example, the experience of racism and sexism that black women experience cannot be understood by looking at how sexism affects white women and racism affects black men.

10. My Class Didn’t Trump My Race

Robin DiAngelo

  • Robin DiAngelo reflects on her own experience as a white woman coming from a working class background to demonstrate how racial privilege interacts with class oppression.

Part 3, Complicating Questions of Identity: Race, Ethnicity, and Immigration

1. Immigration in the United States: New Economic, Social, Political Landscapes with Legislative Reform on the Horizon

Faye Hipsman and Doris Meissner

  • This is a comprehensive look at U.S. immigration policy – its history, current demographics, and the social, political, and economic implications it has for us all.

5. Black Ethnics: Race, Immigration and the Pursuit of the American Dream

Christina Greer

  • Christina Greer’s research on the relationship between native-born black Americans and black ethnic immigrants illustrates the evolving complexity of racial identity.

7. How does it feel to be a problem? Being Young and Arab in America

Moustafa Bayoumi

  • Moustafa Bayoumi chronicles the experiences of young Arab and Muslim Americans in the post 9/11 era. He illustrates how contemporary examples of racialization and exclusion of Arab and Muslim Americans reflects a history of these processes in the United States, tracing the ways that these communities have been perceived over time as well as how other racial/ethnic groups have been designated "a problem."

Part IV: Discrimination in Everyday Life

2. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Color Blindness

Michelle Alexander

  • Michelle Alexander looks at how the criminal justice system perpetuates racial injustice as she examines the mass incarceration and racial targeting of Black and Latino communities.

3. Deportations Down, But Fear Persists Among Undocumented Immigrants

Tim Henderson

  • Tim Henderson looks at the fear of deportation in undocumented communities. Henderson notes that even when the rate of deportation went down, the level of fear in undocumented immigrant communities remained. He shows our feelings of fear and insecurity operate beyond the concrete risks we face.

4. The Ghosts of Stonewall: Policing Gender, Policing Sex

Joey Mogul, Andrea J. Ritchie, Kay Whitlock

  • This piece explores how the actions and identities of LGBT people, especially people of color, come under greater scrutiny by the law and are more vulnerable to punishment.

5. The Transgender Crucible

Sabrina Rubin Erderly

  • This piece chronicles the life and imprisonment of activist CeCe McDonald, a transgender black woman who was thrust into the national spotlight after she was imprisoned for killing a bigoted assailant in self-defense.

10. Race, Disability and the School to Prison Pipeline

Julianne Hing

  • Julianne Hing, through on-scene reporting, profiles of students and teachers, and research, examines the relationship between educational institutions, systems of punishment, and the risks involved for marginalized students.

13. By the Numbers: Sex Crimes on Campus

Dave Gustafson

  • An alarming statistical snapshot of sexual violence and assault endemic on college campuses across America.

15. Pollution, Poverty and People of Color: A Michigan Tribe Battles a Global Corporation

Brian Bienkowski

  • The article illuminates the plight of the Chippewa, a small Native American community in Michigan, whose lands and waters are being polluted due to increased mining activity.

Part V The Economics of Race, Class and Gender

2. Wealth Inequality Has Widened Along Racial, Ethnic Lines Since End of Great Recession

Rakesh Kochhar and Richard Fry

  • This piece provides a statistical overview of the economic impact of the Great Recession, looking at inequality and wealth distribution by racial category.

4. Immigration Enforcement as a Race Making Institution

Douglas Massey

  • Douglas Massey’s research illustrates how immigration policy shapes the demographics of communities in the United States—in this case, Latino immigrants, over time.

5. For Asians Wealth Stereotypes Don’t Fit Reality

Seth Freed Wessler

  • Seth Freed Wessler challenges stereotypes about Asian "model minority" success, painting a more complete picture of class distribution in Asian American communities.

6. Gender and Black Job Crisis

Linda Burhman

  • Linda Burnham’s research shows how black women, facing both racism and sexism in the workplace, were more impacted by the last recession and continue to struggle during the economic recovery.
7. Valuing Domestic Work

Ai-Jen Poo

  • Ai-Jen Poo writes about how domestic workers, organizing as a workforce of mostly immigrant women of color, challenge unfair and unjust workplace conditions. Organizing on the basis of "women’s work" makes visible the often-erased caring labor that is essential to our economy.
9. The New Face of Hunger

Tracey McMillan

  • Tracie McMillan looks at hunger inequality and finds that "in the United States more than half of hungry households are white, and two-thirds of those with children have at least one working adult-typically in a full-time job." Declining wages help to explain why one-sixth of Americans do not have enough to eat.

10. 'I am Alena': life as a trans woman where survival means living as Christopher

Ed Pilkington

  • In his profile of Alena Bradford, Ed Pilkington shows us a different angle on the question of economic inequality through a discussion of how gender expression and self-determination can be shaped by material realities and access to resources.

Part VI Many Voices, Many Lives: Issues of Race, Class, Gender and Sexuality in Everyday Life

4. Between the World and Me

Ta-Nehisi Coates

  • In this poetic reflection Ta-Nehisi Coates relays his experience as a young black man learning the violence of racism to his son.

5. I wouldn’t have Come if I would have Known

Tammy Kim

  • E. Tammy Kim tells the story of an undocumented immigrant and the everyday struggles she faces. This piece is paired with an introduction to the history and workings of the Dream Act and DACA program.

7. "You are in the dark, in the car…"

Claudia Rankine

  • In this poem from the award winning Citizen: An American Lyric, Rankine provides a personal reflection of how race-based assumptions and structural racism have impacted her everyday experience.

11. Gentrification will Drive My Uncle Out of His Neighborhood, and I will have Helped.

Eric Rodriquez

  • Eric Rodriquez looks at gentrification in his childhood Los Angeles neighborhood from the perspective of a financially successful adult.

12. My Vassar Faculty ID Makes Everything Okay

Kiese Laymon

  • In an emotional account Kiese Laymon reflects on the privilege afforded him by his tenure at Vassar college as well as structural racism he and his students an encounter on campus and beyond and its impact.

13. Black Bodies in Motion and in Pain

Edwidge Danticat

  • Edwidge Danticat shares a beautiful and difficult meditation on the concurrences of anti-black racism by linking the white supremacist killings of black churchgoers in Charleston, South Carolina to the state policies of the removal of Haitians in the Dominican Republic.

14. The Unbearable (In)visibility

Chase Strangio

  • Chase Strangio, a white transgender male lawyer, reflects of his experience of being both hypervisible in the looks, questions, altercations his trans identity leads to but also invisible in the respect he is afforded in court, in his doctor’s office, and in his law school. He further speculates on how his experience would be different if he was not white, was not a lawyer, and was not male.
Part VII How it Happened: Race and Gender Issues in US

11. The Chinese Exclusion Act

  • The Chinese Exclusion Act barred all immigration of Chinese laborers and was one of the first major federal laws restricting immigration in the United States,

15. U.S. v. Bhagat Singh Thind

This 1923 Supreme Court case that made the distinction between "scientific" racial classification and "common sense" racial classification, thus allowing for greater leverage to discriminate against minority groups. This decision changed the way that citizenship and race were understood in the United States.

19. Obergefell v. Hodges

  • The 2015 Supreme Court case that legalized gay marriage in the United States.


Part VIII Maintaining, Race, Class and Gender Hierarchies: Reproducing Reality

7. You May Know Me from Such Roles as Terrorist #4

Jon Ronson

  • Jon Ronson writes about typecasting of Muslim and Arab actors and the role of the entertainment industry in perpetuating stereotypes. He speaks with actors about how they negotiate the ethics of playing one-dimensional stereotypic roles with the pragmatic concerns of finding work and needing to pay the bills.

8. The Florida State Seminoles: The Champions of Racist Mascots

David Zirin

  • Zirin looks at the racist nature of Native American mascots and team names in professional sports.

9. Michael Brown Unremarkable Humanity

Ta-Nehisi Coates

  • Ta-Nehisi Coates reflects on the media portrayal of Michael Brown in the aftermath of his death in Ferguson, Missouri. He argues that by casting Michael Brown as "no angel," the New York Times sets an impossible standard for morality: does one need to be angelic to be safe from violence?

10. When you forget to Whistle Vivaldi

Tressie McMillan Cottom

  • Tressie McMillan Cottom reflects on the death on Jonathan Ferrell and the coverage of his death in the media. She examines how racially targeted individuals are expected to change their behavior to prevent targeting and asks us to consider the consequences of this on a personal level.


Part IX Social Change: Revisioning the Future and Making A Difference

6. The Motivating Forces Behind Black Lives Matter

Tasbeeh Herwees

  • This piece profiles the lives of the women who started the Black Lives Matter movement and their ongoing fight for racial justice and equality.

7. On Solidarity, "Centering Anti-Blackness," and Asian Americans

Scot Nakagawa

  • Scot Nakagawa, an activist for racial justice, describes how people of all races can become allies of the Black Lives Matter movement.