Introductory Chemistry & SaplingPlus for Introductory Chemistry (Twelve Months Access)
First Edition   ©2018

Introductory Chemistry & SaplingPlus for Introductory Chemistry (Twelve Months Access)

Kevin Revell

  • ISBN-10: 1-319-19556-3; ISBN-13: 978-1-319-19556-4; Format: Demand Pack, 640 pages

Chapter 1:
Foundations

Taxol
Section 1.1 Chemistry:  Part of Everything You Do
         Describe the impact of chemistry on a variety of other fields.
Section 1.2 Describing Matter
        Describe the difference between composition and structure.
        Differentiate between elements, compounds, homogeneous mixtures, and heterogeneous mixtures.
        Describe the three phases of matter.
        Compare and contrast physical and chemical properties and physical and chemical changes.
Section 1.3 Energy and Change 
         Define heat energy in terms of the motion of particles.
         Describe the relationship between the potential energy of a system and its potential for change.
Section 1.4 The Scientific Method
         Describe the key components of the scientific method
         Differentiate between a hypothesis, a theory, and a scientific law.
Chapter 2:
Measurement

A Strange Death
Section 2.1 Measurement:  A Foundation of Good Science
         Convert between standard and scientific notation, and solve multiplication and division problems involving scientific notation.
         Describe the quality of measurements using the terms accuracy and precision.
         Identify significant digits in a measured number, and measurements to an appropriate number of significant digits, and apply the rules for significant digits to simple calculations.
Section 2.2 Unit Conversion
         Perform unit conversions using the factor-label method.
Section 2.3 Density:  Relating Mass to Volume
         Relate the density, mass, and volume of a substance.
Section 2.4 Measuring Temperature
         Convert between Celsius, Fahrenheit, and Kelvin temperature scales.
Chapter 3:
Atoms

Mercury Contamination from Small-Scale Gold Mining
Section 3.1 Atoms: The Essential Building Blocks
         Describe the development of atomic theory and its key observations about atoms. Apply the [CT1] [KR2] law of conservation of mass to solve mass problems related to chemical reactions.
         Describe chemical changes using atomic theory.
Section 3.2 The Periodic Table of the Elements
         Explain [KR3] the organization of the periodic table.
Section 3.3 Uncovering Atomic Structure
         Describe the behavior of charged particles.
         Explain [KR4] how the discovery of the battery and Rutherford’s gold foil experiment shaped our understanding of atomic structure.
         Describe the relative mass and charge of protons, neutrons, and electrons and their arrangement within an atom.
Section 3.4 Describing Atoms: Identity and Mass
         Relate the number of protons to atomic number and the sum of nuclear particles to mass number.
         Describe the nuclear structure of isotopes and calculate average atomic mass from a distribution of isotopes and relative abundances.
         Differentiate between mass number and average atomic mass.
Section 3.5 Electrons—A Preview
         Contrast the description of electrons in th[CT5] e Bohr model and the quantum mechanical model.
         Identify the overall charge of an atom or ion based on the number of protons and electrons.
Chapter 4:
Light and Electronic Structure

Edging toward Solar Energy
Section 4.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum 
         Qualitatively and quantitatively describe the relationships between the wavelength, frequency, and energy of electromagnetic radiation.
Section 4.2 Color, Line Spectra, and the Bohr Model
         Describe line spectra, the Bohr model, and how the two are related.
         Describe the absorption or emission of light as a function of electron transitions.
Section 4.3 The Quantum Model and Electron Orbitals
         Describe Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle and the wave nature of electrons.
         Identify the number of orbitals and the maximum electron capacity of the s, p, d, and f sublevels.
         Correlate each primary energy level with the available sublevels.
Section 4.4 Describing Electron Configurations
         Write electron configurations for atoms and ions, using either full notation or noble-gas shorthand.
         Identify the inner, outer, and valence electrons in an atom or ion.
         Apply the octet rule to explain the exceptional stability of the noble gases.
Section 4.5 Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table
         Use the periodic table to quickly identify the highest occupied energy level and sublevel of an element.
         Use the periodic table to identify the number of valence electrons for main-group elements.
Chapter 5:
Chemical Bonds & Compounds

An Unexpected Combination: Lithium Carbonate and Bipolar Disorder
Section 5.1 Lewis Symbols and the Octet Rule
         Use the periodic table to identify the number of valence electrons in an atom.
         Represent valence electrons using Lewis dot symbols.
Section 5.2 Ions
         Describe and predict the formation of main-group ions using the octet rule.
         Identify common monatomic and polyatomic ions by name, symbol or formula, and charge.
Section 5.3 Ionic Bonds and Compounds 
         Predict ionic formulas based on the charges of the cation and anion.
         Broadly describe the arrangement of ions in an ionic solid.
         Convert between the name and formula for an ionic compound.
Section 5.4 Covalent Bonding 
         Describe how nonmetals fulfill the octet rule through covalent bonds.
         Describe how covalent compounds lead to the formation of molecules.
         Describe the difference between a molecular formula and an empirical formula.
         Name binary covalent compounds.
Section 5.5 Distinguishing Ionic and Covalent Compounds 
         Distinguish ionic and covalent compounds based on their molecular formulas.
Section 5.6 Aqueous Solutions:  How Ionic and Covalent Compounds Differ
         Contrast the behavior of ionic compounds and covalent compounds in aqueous solutions.
Section 5.7 Acids – An Introduction 
         Describe the ionization of acids in aqueous solution.
         Name binary acids and oxyacids.
Chapter 6:
Chemical Reactions

 Lost Cities of the Maya
Section 6.1 Chemical Equations
         Write chemical equations to express the identity and ratio of species in a chemical change.
         Use a balanced equation to describe the ratio in which atoms or compounds react.
         Correctly balance an equation.
Section 6.2 Classifying Reactions 
         Classify synthesis, decomposition, single displacement, and double-displacement reactions.
Section 6.3 Reactions Between Metals and Nonmetals
         Predict the products formed from the reaction of metals and nonmetals.
         Identify the species that are oxidized and reduced in a metal-nonmetal combination reaction.
Section 6.4 Combustion Reactions  
         Predict the products formed from the combustion of metals, and from the combustion of hydrocarbons.
Section 6.5 Reactions in Aqueous Solution  
         Apply the solubility rules to determine whether common ionic compounds are water soluble and predict the products of precipitation reactions.
         Predict the products of acid-base neutralization reactions.
Describe precipitation and neutralization reactions using molecular, complete-ionic, and net-ionic equations.
Chapter 7:
Mass Stoichiometry

Process Development
Section 7.1 Formula Mass and Percent Composition
         Calculate the formula mass of a compound.
         Calculate the percent composition (by mass) of elements in a compound.
         Broadly describe how chemists measure formula mass and percent composition.
Section 7.2 Connecting Atomic Mass to Large-Scale Mass:  The Mole Concept   
         Use the mole concept to relate masses on the atomic scale to masses on the laboratory scale.
         Convert between grams, moles, and atoms or molecules.
Section 7.3 The Mole Concept in Balanced Equations       
         Apply the mole concept to solve stoichiometry problems, relating the amounts of reagents and products in a chemical change.
         Identify the limiting and excess reagents in chemical reactions.
Section 7.4 Theoretical and Percent Yield  
         Differentiate between theoretical, actual, and percent yields. 
         Describe chemical and physical occurrences that can lead to an actual yield that is less than the theoretical yield.
Using the theoretical and actual yield, correctly calculate the percent yield for a chemical reaction.
Chapter 8:
Energy

The Corn Ethanol Debate
Section 8.1
         Describe the relationships between heat, work, and total energy change.
         Describe the exchange of energy between the systems and surroundings that accompanies a physical or chemical change.
Section 8.2
         Explain the difference between heat and temperature.
         Use calorimetry measurements to determine energy changes.
         Apply the heat capacity or specific heat of a system to solve problems relating heat energy and temperature.
Section 8.3
         Use fuel values and reaction enthalpies to calculate the heat absorbed or released in a chemical reaction.
Chapter 9:
Covalent Bonding and Molecules

The Shortest Race
Section 9.1 Covalent Molecules
         Describe the electronic arrangements of covalent structures, including single, double and triple covalent bonds, lone pairs, and filled and expanded octets.
         Draw Lewis structures for simple molecules.
Section 9.2 Molecules and Charge
         Calculate formal charge, and relate it to the overall charge of polyatomic ions.
         Draw Lewis structures for polyatomic ions.
         Use resonance structures to describe bonding and charge distribution.
Section 9.3 Shapes of Molecules
         Apply the VSEPR model to predict the electronic and molecular geometry for molecules having two, three, or four charge sets.
Section 9.4 Polar Bonds and Molecules
         Describe the trends in electronegativity across the periodic table.
         Use differences in in electronegativity to differentiate between covalent, polar covalent, and ionic bonds.
         Estimate molecular dipoles through the combination of polar covalent bonds and molecular shape.
Chapter 10:
Solids, Liquids, and Gases

The North Dakota Boom
Section 10.1 
         Describe the motion of particles in a solid, liquid, or gas.
Section 10.2 
         Describe the bonding and arrangement of particles in ionic, metallic, molecular, polymeric, and covalent-network substances.
         Describe the different types of intermolecular forces, and relate these differences to relative melting or boiling temperatures.
Section 10.3 
         Describe the key features of an ideal gas.
         Describe how to use a liquid barometer to determine pressure.
Section 10.4
         Apply the combined gas laws to relate changes in the pressure, volume, and temperature of a gas.
         Relate the pressure, volume, number of moles, and temperature of a gas using the ideal gas law.
         Relate the temperature, volume, and pressure of a gas to atomic or molecular motion.
Section 10.5
         Describe the motion of larger and smaller gas particles at a given temperature, and apply these concepts to the principles of diffusion and effusion.
Section 10.6
         Apply the principles of stoichiometry to solve problems involving reactions of gases.

Chapter 11:
Solutions

The Perfect Cup of Coffee
Section 11.1 
         Calculate solution concentrations by percent, parts-per-million, parts-per-billion, and molarity.
         Convert between moles, volume, and molarity.
         Quantitatively describe the preparation of solutions of a known molarity.
 
Section 11.2
         Describe the behavior of electrolytes and nonelectrolytes in aqueous solution.
         Determine the molar concentrations of ions in solution.
         Qualitatively describe the changes in freezing point, boiling point, and osmotic pressure as a function of solute concentration.
Section 11.3 
         Describe reactions that take place in aqueous solution using molecular and ionic equations.
Section 11.4
         Apply the principles of stoichiometry to solve problems involving solutions.
Chapter 12:
Acids & Bases

Cocaine: Ruin and Recovery
Section 12.1 
         Define acids and bases using both the Arrhenius and the Brønsted-Lowry definitions.
         Describe the process of acid-base dissociation in aqueous solution.
Section 12.2
         Explain the difference between strong and weak acids.
         Identify the acid, base, conjugate acid, and conjugate base in a chemical equilibrium.
Section 12.3
         Predict the reactions of metals with acid to form metal ions and hydrogen gas.
         Predict the products from acid-base neutralization reactions.
Section 12.4
         Explain how the addition of acid or base to an aqueous solution affects the concentration of H3O+ and OH- in an aqueous solution.
         Relate the values of pH, pOH, [H3O+], and [OH-] in an aqueous solution.
Section 12.5
         Identify common indicators for acid and base solutions.
         Apply data from a titration experiment to find the concentration of an unknown acid or base.
Section 12.6
         Describe how buffers are able to stabilize the pH of solutions.

Chapter 13:

Reaction Rates & Equilibrium

The Haber-Bosch Process
13.1 Reaction Rates
         How Concentration and Temperature Affect Reaction Rates
         How Changes in Energy Affect Reaction Rates
         Describing Energy Changes in Chemistry: Reaction Energy Diagrams
         Catalysts

13.2 Equilibrium Reactions

13.3 Equilibrium Expressions
        Equilibrium Expressions Involving Solvents
        Equilibrium Expressions Involving Solids
        Solubility Products
        Equilibrium Expressions Involving Gases

 13.4 Le Chatelier’s Principle

      Equilibrium and Concentration
      Equilibrium and Temperature
      Equilibrium and Pressure
      Summary
      Miracles and Monstrosities: The Brutal Ironies of Fritz Haber

      Key Terms
      Additional Problems

Chapter 14
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Volta’s Marvel
14.1 Oxidation and Reduction
     Oxidation Numbers

14.2 Types of Redox Reactions
     Reactions of Metals with Nonmetals
     Combustion Reactions
     Metal Displacement Reactions
     The Activity Series
     Reactions of Metals with Acid and Water

14.3 Half-Reactions and Batteries

    Half-Reactions
    Batteries

14.4 Balancing Redox Equations

14.5 Other Applications of Redox Reactions
    Electroplating
    Fuel Cells
    Summary
    Charging Ahead: Batteries Today and Tomorrow
    Key Terms
    Additional Problems

Chapter 15
Organic Chemistry and Biomolecules

Robert Grubbs
15.1 Organic Chemistry and the Carbon Cycle

15.2 Covalent Bonding with Carbon and Other Nonmetals

15.3 Drawing Covalent Structures
    Condensed Structures
    Skeletal Structures

15.4 Major Functional Groups
    Hydrocarbon Functional Groups
    Alkanes and Cycloalkanes
    Alkenes and Alkynes

    Aromatic Compounds
    Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups
    Alcohols and Ethers
    Carbonyl Groups
    A Summary of Oxygen-Containing Groups
    Nitrogen-Containing Functional Groups

15.5 Polymers and Plastics

15.6 Biomolecules—An Introduction
     Carbohydrates
     Amino Acids and Proteins
     Amino Acids
     Peptides and Peptide Bonds
     DNA
     Summary
     How Catalysts Work
     Key Terms
     Additional Problems

Chapter 16
Nuclear Chemistry

Fukushim

16.1 Nuclear Changes
      The Nucleus—A Review
       Nuclear Reactions

16.2 Radioactivity
     Types of Radioactive Decay
     Alpha Decay
     Beta Decay
     Gamma Decay
     Radioactive Decay Series
     Half-Life
     Health Effects of Radiation Exposure
     Measuring Radiation
     Common Exposure Levels
     Uses of Radioactive Nuclides
     Uses in Medicine
     Uses in Geology and Archaeology
     Carbon-14 Dating of Plant and Animal Remains
     Dating of Exposed Rock Surfaces Using Be-10 and Al-26

16.3 Energy Changes in Nuclear Reactions
     Mass Defect, Binding Energy, and Einstein’s Famous Equation
    Nuclide Stability

16.4 Nuclear Power: Fission and Fusion
    Fission
    Uranium Enrichment
    Fission Reactor Design
    Waste from Nuclear Fusion
    Fusion
    Replicating Fusion on Earth
    Are We There Yet?
    Summary
    Powering the Future
    Key Terms
    Additional Problems