Ninth Edition   ©2015

The Developing Person Through the Life Span

Kathleen Stassen Berger (Bronx Community College, CUNY)

  • ISBN-10: 1-4292-8381-5; ISBN-13: 978-1-4292-8381-6; Format: Cloth Text, 1008 pages

Part I:  Introduction
1. Introduction

New chapter opener focusing on Kathleen Berger’s (embarrassing) experience at the birth of her grandson, Caleb. 

  • Comprehensive explanation of the difference-equals-deficit error is used to highlight the importance of a multicultural approach in developmental science.
  • An Opposing Perspectives feature box introduces students to the controversies surrounding the use of the word “race” in the social sciences.
  • An explanation of genetics and epigenetics now appears in this introductory chapter as an example of why the study of human development needs to take a multidisciplinary approach.
  • A new section on researching the topic of depression provides students with a concrete illustration of the way a multidisciplinary approach can lead to a better understanding of a particular issue.
  • Dynamic systems theory and the concept of differential sensitivity are used to explain the plasticity of human development.

2. Theories of Development

  • The controversial text Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother is used as an example to illustrate the popularity and ubiquity of theories of human development. 
  • A new section on Comparing Grand Theories provides thought-provoking comparisons between psychoanalytic, behavioral, and cognitive theories. 
  • A new feature box on Toilet Training illustrates exactly how various theoretical schools can take radically different approaches to a particular issue. 
  • An expanded account of sociocultural theory explains the pervasiveness of cultural influences on individual people and the extent to which scientists now acknowledge these influences in their studies. 
  • A View from Science feature box explores the way evolutionary theory accounts for sexual jealousy between men and women.
3. Heredity and Environment
  • New material on copy number variations as a type of interaction between genes that correlates with a large number of diseases and conditions.
  • An expanded discussion of genetic counseling that includes criteria for determining when a pregnant woman should be informed about genetic disorders that tests have detected in her fetus.

4. Prenatal Development and Birth

  • Updated data on rates of cesarean deliveries in the United States and around the world.
  • A new discussion of innate vulnerability as a factor that influences the effects of teratogens on prenatal development. 
  • New material on the responsibility of doctors and scientists in advising pregnant women about avoiding various teratogens. 
  • Expanded discussion of problems associated with low birth weight, including the complementary roles of mothers and fathers.
  • A new section on the way the parental alliance can have a healthy influence on pregnancy and birth.  

Part II.  The First Two Years
5. The First Two Years: Biosocial Development

  • A new View from Science feature box on Face Recognition outlines the role of experience in the development of dendrites in the fusiform face area of the brain, which in turn gives babies the ability to recognize faces.
  • New material on Harming the Infant Brain explores several sources of harm and successful interventions. 
  • An expanded section on Touch and Pain summarizes current scientific thought on infants’ experience of pain. 
  • A new section on Dynamic Sensory-Motor Systems connects dynamic systems theory with a baby’s growing ability to coordinate senses and skills.
  • Updated data on infant death rates around the world show the way improved public health measures have increased infant survival rates. 
  • An account of Susan Beal’s research into sudden infant death syndrome now ends this chapter to summarize the complexity of infant care and the way many factors interact to produce any one result.

6. The First Two Years: Cognitive Development

  • A new section on Piaget and Modern Research focuses on the limitations of Piaget’s conclusions about Sensorimotor Intelligence that have come to light in more recent studies.
  • The section called Research on Early Affordances has been updated to include new research on the influence of social context on early affordances. 
  • A new feature box on Language and Video discusses the connection between a toddler’s interpersonal relationships and his or her intellectual growth and cautions against the claims of certain commercial “educational” products. 
  • In the section on Information Processing there is more of an emphasis on the active nature of the young child’s brain and the influences of experiences and memory on what the child knows. 

7. The First Two Years: Psychosocial Development

  • A new discussion of Social Awareness to complement that on Self-Awareness in the section on the emotional development of toddlers. 
  • An expanded section on brain growth and its links to this stage of child development.
  • A discussion of Romanian orphans is used to illustrate the hazards associated with insecure attachment. 
  • A new section on Preventing Problems discusses ways of avoiding insecure attachment between new parents and their babies.
  • The discussion of proximal and distal parenting has been expanded and highlighted by placing it in an Opposing Perspectives feature box. 
  • In the section on Theory, there are new discussions of Humanism and Evolutionary Theory and the way they apply to this stage of development.
Part III: Early Childhood

8. Early Childhood: Biosocial Development

  • An expanded treatment of stress hormones and their effects on the limbic system. 
  • The discussion of Nutritional Deficiencies has been expanded to include recent research on food allergies.
  • The section on prevention of avoidable injuries has been reorganized to place a greater emphasis on cultural variations. 
  • A new feature box on the way scientific research encouraged the elimination of lead from paints and gasoline in the United States and the positive effects this had on child development.
9. Early Childhood: Cognitive Development
  • The discussion of Piaget’s Preoperational Thought has been expanded to include the use of symbolic thought by young children. 
  • Vygotsky’s Social Learning Theory is applied to the recent emphasis on STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Math) education and possible implications for early childhood learning. 
  • A new Research Design feature demonstrates the power of scaffolding for 2- to 6-year-olds in different cultures.
  • Under Language Learning there is new material on the activities in early childhood that aid later literacy in elementary school.
  • A new section on recent research into strategies for enhancing bilingual education in early childhood.

10. Early Childhood: Psychosocial Development

  • The opening section on Emotional Development has been reorganized and rewritten to emphasize the connection with brain maturation during early childhood. 
  • In the section on Motivation, there is a new discussion of why young children create imaginary friends
  • Under Play, the discussion of the importance of culture and cohort has been significantly expanded. 
  • The expanded treatment of Challenges of Caregivers discusses not only parents but also other significant adults in a child’s life. 
  • The discussion of theoretical approaches to sex and gender has been broadened to include Sociocultural Theory, Humanism, and Evolutionary Theory.
  • The nature/nurture controversy as it applies early childhood behavior is treated in greater detail.
  • Under the topic of discipline, there is a new Opposing Features box on the pros and cons of spanking.
Part IV:  Middle Childhood  

11.  Middle Childhood: Biosocial Development

  • Extensively updated coverage of psychopathology in childhood including updated coverage of Autism Spectrum Disorder, ADHD and Specific Learning Disabilties.
  • New Case-to-Study on Lynda, a young girl with psychological difficulties, whose case is “diagnosed” by a number of professionals, leading to a critical thinking discussion of the challenges in treating and understanding childhood psychopathology.
  • New section on gifted education.
  • New box “A View from Science” on childhood obesity.

12.  Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

  • Updated and extensive section on the international contexts for the growth in childhood cognition, including an extended example of the sense of direction among children in Varanasi, a city in India.
  • Updated discussion of international tests and international schooling, including material on the Finnish educational success story.
  • New discussion of the Common Core standards.
 

13.  Middle Childhood: Psychosocial Development

  • New chapter opening vignette about an 8-year-old boy whose father says he’s too young to play video games where he kills zombies.
  • Updated discussion and understanding of risk and resilience, focusing on epigenetics—and the fact that differential genetics may mean that what is beneficial to one child may be stressful for another.
  • New Case-to-study about child neglect and how to recognize it in children in school.
Part V:  Adolescence  

14. Adolescence: Biosocial Development

  • New research on sleep deprivation, including the observation that the light from computers, video games and even cell phones can interrupt circadian rhythms and interfere with teenagers’ natural nighttime sleepiness.
  • New coverage of new DSM 5 diagnosis of Binge Eating Disorders.
  • Updated data about the timing of adolescent sexual activity.
15.  Adolescence: Cognitive Development
  • New section on the impact of technology on adolescent thinking: “Digital Natives” which includes material on potential internet and video game “addiction,” “sexting” and cyberbullying.
  • New chapter opening vignette about the challenges teaching sometimes“egocentric” adolescents in high school. 
  • Updated research, including the work of Daniel Kahneman (the Nobel-prize winning psychologist), on logical fallacies. 
  • New research on what motivates students to succeed in middle and high school, including theories about student’s beliefs about what causes school success.
  • New material on high stakes testing in high school, including coverage of the Common Core and updated international tests including the PISA.
16. Adolescence: Psychosocial Development
  • New material on culture and cultural differences and similaries in parent-child relationships across the world. 
  • Updated section and data on relationships between same-sex adolescents.
  • New coverage of the impact of culture and context, particularly in Latino/a youth and gay youth, on depression in adolescence.
  • New Opposing Perspectives box on teenaged rage, asking students to think critically about whether rage and rebellion is a culturally-bound or universal part of the adolescent experience.
Part VI:  Emerging Adulthood  

17.  Emerging Adulthood: Biosocial Development

  • Material on homeostasis, organ reserveand  allostatis has been moved to this chapter.
  • Significantly reorganized and updated material on psychopathology in emerging adulthood, reflecting new DSM 5 categorizations.
  • New “Opposing Perspectives” box on risk taking in early adulthood. 
  • Updated material on drugs of abuse, including coverage of energy drinks and ketamine, and social norms theories of drug abuse prevention.
18.  Emerging Adulthood:  Cognitive Development
  • Updated research on stereotype threat and its power to influence the success of college students.
  • Updated data on trends in higher education, including the increasing costs of college, use of technology in the classroom (including the “flipped classroom” and MOOCs).
19. Emerging Adulthood:  Psychosocial Development
  • Updated material on vocation and vocational identity in emerging adulthood with coverage of John Holland’s research and the recent economic challenges faced by young adults.
  • New coverage of the importance of plasticity in emerging adulthood, including the concept of “plasticity genes”, which reiterates the ongoing coverage in this book of epigeneis—the impact of environment on gene expression throughout the life span.
  • Updated material on how use of the internet and social media enhances friendships during emerging adulthood.
  • New coverage of “churning”, relationships which start-and-stop frequently and are characterized by conflict.
  • Updated coverage of the relationship between emerging adults and their parents (which tend to be closer than ever before).  
Part VII:  Adulthood  

20.  Adulthood:  Biosocial Development

  • Updated research on aging vision and senses.
  • New material on the use  of hormone replacement therapy for men and women in aging, and adult obesity.
21.  Adulthood:  Cognitive Development
  • Updated data on IQ changes in adulthood, including cohort and generational effects.
22.  Adulthood: Psychosocial Development
  • New chapter opening vignette on Kathleen Berger’s recent broken bones, illustrating the web of connection in adulthood.
  • New material on culture and variations in adult children’s relationships with their parents.
  • Updated section on sibling and “fictive kin” relationships. 
  • Updated section on possible predictors of marital happiness and new research on same-sex marriage and adoption.
  • New box focusing on diversity in the workplace and the harm caused by “microaggression”among co-workers.  
Part VIII:  Late Adulthood  

23. Late Adulthood: Biosocial Development

  • New box on sex in later adulthood—focusing on how satisfied many older adults are with their sexuality.
  • New material on driving in late adulthood, including material on policy issues and changes in our senses as we age.
  • Recent research on normative brain changes in late adulthood, including coverage of brain shrinkage.
  • Updated research on the theories of aging and controversies over how to delay it—including calorie restriction, sirtuins and reversatrol.
24.  Late Adulthood: Cognitive Development
  • Significantly revised and updated presentation on neurocognitive disorder to reflect the new DSM 5 categorization and the retirement of the term “dementia”.
  • Significantly updated and revised discussion of brain function and cognitive processes during aging, including development sin memory and executive control processes.
  • New boxes on cognitive errors during adulthood, focusing on dual processing, and intelligence testing in late adulthood.
25.  Late Adulthood:  Psychosocial Development
  • New coverage of compulsive hoarding, a new DSM 5 diagnosis.
  • New Opposing Perspectives box on positive world view among elders
  • Updates on the section on employment in late adulthood to reflect the fact that many elders are still in the workforce, or would like to be.
Epilogue:  Death and Dying
  • Updated coverage of hospice care in the US and around the world
  • New material on planning for the end-of-life, including coverage of advanced directives.
  • Updated material on bereavement and grief.