Tenth Edition   ©2017

The Bedford Handbook

Diana Hacker (late of Prince George's Community College) , Nancy Sommers (Harvard University)  

  • ISBN-10: 1-4576-8303-2; ISBN-13: 978-1-4576-8303-9; Format: Paper Text, 960 pages

Preface for Instructors  
Introduction: Why good habits matter 
Part I The Writing Process 
Online activities    
1 Exploring, planning, and drafting 
         Becoming a college writer: Choose topics you care about 
     a Assessing the writing situation 
     b Exploring your subject 
     c Drafting and revising a working thesis  
         How to solve five common problems with thesis statements    * NEW
     d Drafting a plan 
     e Drafting an introduction 
     f Drafting the body 
     g Drafting a conclusion 
     h Managing your files   
2 Revising, editing, and reflecting    
         Becoming a college writer: Form a community of readers around you 
     a Seeing revision as a social process   * NEW
     b Using peer review: Revising with comments    * NEW
     c Using peer review: Giving constructive comments * NEW
         How to write helpful peer review comments * NEW
     d Highlights of one student’s peer review process * NEW
     e Approaching global revision in cycles  
     f Revising and editing sentences 
         How to improve your writing with an editing log  * NEW
     g Proofreading the final draft 
     h Sample student revision: Literacy narrative 
         Writing guide: How to write a literacy narrative 
      i Preparing a portfolio; reflecting on your writing  
         Writing guide: How to write a reflective letter 
3 Building effective paragraphs   
     a Focusing on a main point 
     b Developing the main point 
     c Choosing a suitable pattern of organization 
     d Making paragraphs coherent 
     e Adjusting paragraph length 
Part II  Academic Reading and Writing 
Online activities    
4 Reading and writing critically   
         Becoming a college writer: Engage with the texts you read 
     a Reading actively 
     b Outlining a text to identify main ideas 
     c Summarizing to deepen your understanding 
     d Analyzing to demonstrate your critical reading 
         How to draft an analytical thesis statement           * NEW
     e Sample student writing: Analysis of an article 
         Writing guide: How to write an analytical essay  
5  Reading and writing about multimodal texts   
     a Reading actively 
     b Outlining to identify main ideas 
     c Summarizing to deepen your understanding 
          How to write a summary of a multimodal text     * NEW
     d Analyzing to demonstrate your critical reading  
     e Sample student writing: Analysis of an advertisement 
6  Reading and writing arguments   
          Becoming a college writer: Consider counterarguments  
     a Distinguishing between reasonable and fallacious argumentative tactics 
     b Distinguishing between legitimate and unfair emotional appeals 
     c Judging how fairly a writer handles opposing views 
     d Identifying your purpose and context  
     e Viewing your audience as a panel of jurors 
     f Establishing credibility and stating your position 
         How to draft a thesis statement for an argument    * NEW
     g Backing up your thesis with persuasive lines of argument 
     h Supporting your claims with specific evidence  
     i Anticipating objections; countering opposing arguments  
     j Building common ground 
     k Sample student writing: Argument 
        Writing guide: How to write an argument essay   
     l Remixing a written argument for an oral presentation   * NEW
7  Reading and writing about literature    
     a Reading actively 
     b Forming an interpretation 
     c Drafting a working thesis 
     d Using evidence from the text; avoiding plot summary 
     e Observing the conventions of literature papers 
     f Integrating quotations from the text 
     g Documenting secondary sources and avoiding plagiarism 
     h Sample student writing: Literary analysis 
Part III Clear Sentences  
Online activities    
8 Prefer active verbs.       
     a Active versus passive verbs  
         Writer’s Choice: Using the active or the passive voice        * NEW
     b Active versus be verbs  
     c Subject that names the actor  
9 Balance parallel ideas.    
     a Parallel ideas in a series  
     b Parallel ideas presented as pairs  
     c Repetition of function words  
10 Add needed words.    
     a In compound structures  
     b that  
     c In comparisons  
     d a, an, and the  
11 Untangle mixed constructions.   
     a Mixed grammar  
     b Illogical connections  
     c is when, is where, and reason . . . is because  
12 Repair misplaced and dangling modifiers.   
     a Limiting modifiers  
     b Misplaced phrases and clauses  
     c Awkwardly placed modifiers  
     d Split infinitives  
     e Dangling modifiers  
13 Eliminate distracting shifts.   
     a Point of view (person, number)  
         Writer’s Choice: Choosing a point of view    * NEW
     b Verb tense   
     c Verb mood, voice  
     d Indirect to direct questions or quotations  
14 Emphasize key ideas.    
     a Coordination and subordination  
      Writer’s Choice: Positioning major and minor ideas      * NEW
     b Choppy sentences  
     c Ineffective or excessive coordination  
     d Ineffective subordination  
     e Excessive subordination  
     f Other techniques  
15 Provide some variety.   
     a Sentence openings  
         Writer’s Choice: Strengthening with variety   * NEW
     b Sentence structures  
     c Inverted order  
     d An occasional question 
Part IV Word Choice  
Online activities    
16 Tighten wordy sentences.    
     a Redundancies  
     b Unnecessary repetition  
     c Empty or inflated phrases  
     d Simplifying the structure  
     e Reducing clauses to phrases, phrases to single words  
17 Choose appropriate language.    
     a Jargon  
         Writer’s Choice: Using discipline-specific terms    * NEW
     b Pretentious language, euphemisms, “doublespeak”  
     c Obsolete and invented words  
     d Slang, regional expressions, nonstandard English  
     e Levels of formality  
     f Sexist language  
     g Offensive language  
18 Find the exact words.   
    a Connotations  
    b Specific, concrete nouns  
    c Misused words  
    d Standard idioms  
    e Clichés  
    f Figures of speech  
Part V Grammatical Sentences  
Online activities    
19 Repair sentence fragments.   
     a Subordinate clauses  
     b Phrases  
     c Other fragmented word groups  
     d Acceptable fragments  
20 Revise run-on sentences.      
     a Revision with a coordinating conjunction  
     Writer’s Choice: Clustering ideas in meaningful ways    * NEW
     b Revision with a semicolon, colon, or dash  
     c Revision by separating sentences  
     d Revision by restructuring  

21 Make subjects and verbs agree. 
     a Standard subject-verb combinations  
     b Words between subject and verb 
     c Subjects joined with and  
     d Subjects joined with or, nor, either . . . or, or neither . . . nor  
     e Indefinite pronouns  
     f Collective nouns  
     g Subject following verb  
     h Agreement with subject, not subject complement  
     i who, which, and that  
     j Words with plural form, singular meaning  
     k Titles of works, company names, words mentioned as words, gerund phrases  

22 Make pronouns and antecedents agree.    
     a Singular with singular, plural with plural (indefinite pronouns, generic nouns)
     b Collective nouns  
     c Antecedents joined with and  
     d Antecedents joined with or, nor, either . . . or, or neither . . . nor  

23 Make pronoun references clear.   
     a Ambiguous or remote reference  
     b Broad reference of this, that, which, and it  
     c Implied antecedents  
     d Indefinite use of they, it, and you  
     e who for persons, which or that for things  

24 Distinguish between pronouns such as I and me.   
     a Subjective case for subjects and subject complements  
     b Objective case for objects  
     c Appositives  
     d Pronoun following than or as  
     e we or us before a noun  
     f Subjects and objects of infinitives  
     g Pronoun modifying a gerund  

25 Distinguish between who and whom.   
     a In subordinate clauses  
     b In questions  
     c As subjects or objects of infinitives  
26 Choose adjectives and adverbs with care.    
     a Adjectives to modify nouns  
     b Adverbs to modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs  
     c good and well, bad and badly  
     d Comparatives and superlatives  
     e Double negatives  
27 Choose appropriate verb forms, tenses, and moods in Standard English.    
     a Irregular verbs  
     b lie and lay  
     c -s (or -es) endings  
     d -ed endings  
     e Omitted verbs  
     f Verb tense  
     g Subjunctive mood  
Part VI Multilingual Writers and ESL Challenges   
Online activities    
28 Verbs    361 
      a Appropriate form and tense  
      b Passive voice  
      c Base form after a modal  
      d Negative verb forms  
      e Verbs in conditional sentences  
      f Verbs followed by gerunds or infinitives  
29 Articles (a, an, the)   
      a Articles and other noun markers  
      b When to use the  
      c When to use a or an  
      d When not to use a or an  
      e No articles with general nouns  
      f Articles with proper nouns  
30 Sentence structure    
      a Linking verb between a subject and its complement  
      b A subject in every sentence  
      c Repeated nouns or pronouns with the same grammatical function  
      d Repeated subjects, objects, adverbs in adjective clauses  
      e Mixed constructions with although or because  
      f Placement of adverbs  
      g Present participles and past participles  
      h Order of cumulative adjectives  
31 Prepositions and idiomatic expressions   
      a Prepositions showing time and place  
      b Nouns (including -ing form) after prepositions  
      c Common adjective + preposition combinations  
      d Common verb + preposition combinations  
Part VII Punctuation  
Online activities    
32 The comma    
      a Independent clauses joined with and, but, etc.  
      b Introductory clauses or phrases 
      c Items in a series  
      d Coordinate adjectives  
      e Nonrestrictive elements  
      f Transitions, parenthetical expressions, absolute phrases, contrasts  
      g Direct address, yes and no, interrogative tags, interjections  
      h he said etc.  
      i Dates, addresses, titles, numbers  
33 Unnecessary commas   
      a Between two words, phrases, or subordinate clauses  
      b Between a verb and its subject or object  
      c Before the first or after the last item in a series  
      d Between cumulative adjectives, an adjective and a noun, or an adverb and an adjective  
      e Before and after restrictive elements  
      f Before essential concluding adverbial elements  
      g After a phrase beginning an inverted sentence  
      h Other misuses  
34 The semicolon    
      a Independent clauses not joined with a coordinating conjunction  
      b Independent clauses linked with a transitional expression  
      c Series containing internal punctuation  
      d Misuses  
35 The colon  
      a Before a list, an appositive, a quotation, or a summary  
      b Conventional uses 
      c Misuses  
36 The apostrophe     
      a Possessive nouns  
      b Possessive indefinite pronouns  
      c Contractions  
      d Not for plural numbers, letters, abbreviations, words as words  
      e Misuses  
37 Quotation marks    
      a Direct quotations  
      b Quotation within a quotation  
      c Titles of short works  
      d Words as words  
      e With other punctuation marks  
      f Misuses  
38 End punctuation   
      a The period  
      b The question mark  
      c The exclamation point  
39 Other punctuation marks    
      a Dash  
      b Parentheses  
      c Brackets  
      d Ellipsis mark  
      e Slash  
Part VIII Mechanics  
Online activities    
40 Abbreviations   
      a Titles with proper names  
      b Familiar abbreviations  
      c Conventional abbreviations  
      d Units of measurement 
      e Latin abbreviations  
      f Plural of abbreviations 
      g Misuses  
41 Numbers   
      a Spelling out  
      b Using numerals  
42 Italics   
      a Titles of works  
      b Names of ships, spacecraft, and aircraft  
      c Foreign words  
      d Words as words, letters as letters, and numbers as numbers 
43 Spelling   
      a Spelling rules  
      b The dictionary  
      c Words that sound alike  
      d Commonly misspelled words  
44 The hyphen    
      a Compound words  
      b Hyphenated words used as adjectives  
      c Fractions and compound numbers  
      d With certain prefixes and suffixes  
      e To avoid ambiguity or to separate awkward double or triple letters  
      f Word division  
45 Capitalization      
      a Proper versus common nouns  
      b Titles with proper names 
      c Titles and subtitles of works  
      d First word of a sentence  
      e First word of a quoted sentence  
      f First word after a colon 
Part IX Grammar Basics  
Online activities    
46 Parts of speech   
      a Nouns 
      b Pronouns    
      c Verbs   
      d Adjectives    
      e Adverbs 494  
      f Prepositions   
      g Conjunctions   
      h Interjections  
47 Sentence patterns   
      a Subjects  
      b Verbs, objects, and complements  
      c Pattern variations  
48 Subordinate word groups     
      a Prepositional phrases 
      b Verbal phrases  
      c Appositive phrases 
           Writer’s Choice: Building credibility with appositives    * NEW
      d Absolute phrases  
      e Subordinate clauses 
49 Sentence types    
      a Sentence structures  
      b Sentence purposes 
Part X Researched Writing  
Online activities   
50 Thinking like a researcher; gathering sources  
        Becoming a college writer: Join a research conversation 
      a Managing the project 
      b Posing questions worth exploring  
        How to enter a research conversation         * NEW
      c Mapping out a search strategy  
      d Searching efficiently; mastering a few shortcuts   
        How to go beyond a Google search          * NEW
      e Conducting field research, if appropriate 
      f Writing a research proposal       * NEW
51 Managing information; taking notes responsibly    
     a Maintaining a working bibliography  
     b Keeping track of source materials  
     c Avoiding unintentional plagiarism  
      How to avoid plagiarizing from the Web       * NEW
52 Evaluating sources     
     a Thinking about how sources might contribute to your writing  
     b Selecting sources worth your time and attention  
     c Selecting appropriate versions of online sources   
     d Reading with an open mind and a critical eye   
     e Assessing Web sources with care   
     f Constructing an annotated bibliography  
   Writing guide: How to write an annotated bibliography  
Writing MLA papers  
53 Supporting a thesis     
     a Forming a working thesis  
     b Organizing ideas with a rough outline  
     c Using sources to inform and support your argument  
     d Drafting an introduction for your thesis  
     e Drafting the paper in an appropriate voice  
54 Citing sources; avoiding plagiarism     
     a Understanding how the MLA system works  
     b Avoiding plagiarism when quoting, summarizing, and paraphrasing sources  
     How to be a responsible research writer 
55 Integrating sources     
        Becoming a college writer: Provide context for sources    
     a Summarizing and paraphrasing effectively          * NEW
     b Using quotations effectively  
     c Using signal phrases to integrate sources  
     d Synthesizing sources   
56 Documenting sources     
     a MLA in-text citations  
     b MLA list of works cited  
         How to answer the basic question “Who is the author?”   
         How to cite a source reposted from another source   
         How to cite course materials    
     c MLA information notes (optional)  
57 Manuscript format; sample research paper    
     a MLA manuscript format  
     b Sample MLA research paper     * NEW
Writing APA papers  
58 Supporting a thesis     
     a Forming a working thesis 
     b Organizing your ideas 
     c Using sources to inform and support your argument 
59 Citing sources; avoiding plagiarism     
     a Understanding how the APA system works  
     b Understanding what plagiarism is  
     c Using quotation marks around borrowed language 
     d Putting summaries and paraphrases in your own words 
60 Integrating sources   
     a Summarizing and paraphrasing effectively          * NEW
     b Using quotations appropriately  
     c Using signal phrases to integrate sources  
     d Synthesizing sources   
61 Documenting sources    
     a APA in-text citations 
     b APA list of references 
62 Manuscript format; sample research paper     
     a APA manuscript format 
     b Sample APA research paper   * NEW
Writing Chicago papers  
63 Chicago papers    
     a Supporting a thesis  
     b Citing sources; avoiding plagiarism  
     c Integrating sources  
     d Chicago documentation style    
     e Chicago manuscript format  
     f Sample Chicago-style research paper (excerpt) 
Part XI Writing in the Disciplines 
Online activities    
64 Learning to write in a discipline 
     a Finding commonalities across disciplines 
     b Recognizing the questions that writers in a discipline ask 
     c Understanding the kinds of evidence that writers in a discipline use 
     d Becoming familiar with a discipline’s language conventions 
     e Using a discipline’s preferred citation style    
65 Approaching writing assignments in the disciplines 
     a Writing in psychology 
     b Writing in business  
     c Writing in biology 
     d Writing in nursing 
APPENDIX: A Document Design Gallery