## College Physics

Roger Freedman (University of California, Santa Barbara) , Todd Ruskell (Colorado School of Mines) , Philip R. Kesten (Santa Clara University) , David L. Tauck (Santa Clara University)

• ISBN-10: 1-4641-9639-7; ISBN-13: 978-1-4641-9639-3; Format: Cloth Text, 1360 pages

##### Instructors

1. Introduction to Physics

1-1 Physicists use a special language—part words, part equations—to describe the natural world

1-2 Success in physics requires well-developed problem-solving skills

1-3 Measurements in physics are based on standard units of time, length, and mass

1-4 Correct use of significant figures helps keep track of uncertainties in numerical values

1-5 Dimensional analysis is a powerful way to check the results of a physics calculation

2. Linear Motion

2-1 Studying motion in a straight line is the first step in understanding physics

2-2 Constant velocity means moving at a steady speed in the same direction

2-3 Velocity is the rate of change of position, and acceleration is the rate of change of velocity

2-4 Constant acceleration means velocity changes at a steady rate

2-5 Solving straight-line motion problems: Constant acceleration

2-6 Objects falling freely near Earth’s surface have constant acceleration

3. Motion in Two and Three Dimensions

3-1 The ideas of linear motion help us understand motion in two or three dimensions

3-2 A vector quantity has both a magnitude and a direction

3-3 Vectors can be described in terms of components

3-4 For motion in a plane, velocity and acceleration are vector quantities

3-5 A projectile moves in a plane and has a constant acceleration

3-6 You can solve projectile motion problems using techniques learned for straight-line motion

3-7 An object moving in a circle is accelerating even if its speed is constant

3-8 The vestibular system of the ear allows us to sense acceleration

4. Forces and Motion I: Newton’s Laws

4-1 How objects move is determined by the forces that act on them

4-2 If a net external force acts on an object, the object accelerates

4-3 Mass, weight, and inertia are distinct but related concepts

4-4 Making a free-body diagram is essential in solving any problem involving forces

4-5 Newton’s third law relates the forces that two objects exert on each other

4-6 All problems involving forces can be solved using the same series of steps

5. Forces and Motion II: Applications

5-1 We can use Newton’s laws in situations beyond those we have already studied

5-2 The static friction force changes magnitude to offset other applied forces

5-3 The kinetic friction force on a sliding object has a constant magnitude

5-4 Problems involving static and kinetic friction are like any other problem with forces

5-5 An object moving through air or water experiences a drag force

5-6 In uniform circular motion, the net force points toward the center of the circle

6. Work and Energy

6-1 The ideas of work and energy are intimately related

6-2 The work that a constant force does on a moving object depends on the magnitude and direction of the force

6-3 Kinetic energy and the work-energy theorem give us an alternative way to express Newton’s second law

6-4 The work-energy theorem can simplify many physics problems

6-5 The work-energy theorem is also valid for curved paths and varying forces

6-6 Potential energy is energy related to an object’s position

6-7 If only conservative forces do work, total mechanical energy is conserved

6-8 Energy conservation is an important tool for solving a wide variety of problems

6-9 Power is the rate at which energy is transferred

7. Momentum, Collisions, and Center of Mass

7-1 Newton’s third law helps lead us to the idea of momentum

7-2 Momentum is a vector that depends on an object’s mass, speed, and direction of motion

7-3 The total momentum of a system of objects is conserved under certain conditions

7-4 In an inelastic collision, some of the mechanical energy is lost

7-5 In an elastic collision, both momentum and mechanical energy are conserved

7-6 What happens in a collision is related to the time the colliding objects are in contact

7-7 The center of mass of a system moves as though all of the system’s mass were concentrated there

8. Rotational Motion

8-1 Rotation is an important and ubiquitous kind of motion

8-2 An object’s rotational kinetic energy is related to its angular velocity and how its mass is distributed

8-3 An object’s moment of inertia depends on its mass distribution and the choice of rotation axis

8-4 Conservation of mechanical energy also applies to rotating objects

8-5 The equations for rotational kinematics are almost identical to those for linear motion

8-6 Torque is to rotation as force is to translation

8-7 The techniques used for solving problems with Newton’s second law also apply to rotation problems

8-8 Angular momentum is conserved when there is zero net torque on a system

8-9 Rotational quantities such as angular momentum and torque are actually vectors

9. Elastic Properties of Matter: Stress and Strain

9-1 When an object is under stress, it deforms

9-2 An object changes length when under tensile or compressive stress

9-3 Solving stress-strain problems: Tension and compression

9-4 An object expands or shrinks when under volume stress

9-5 Solving stress-strain problems: Volume stress

9-6 A solid object changes shape when under shear stress

9-7 Solving stress-strain problems: Shear stress

9-8 Objects deform permanently or fail when placed under too much stress

9-9 Solving stress-strain problems: From elastic behavior to failure

10. Gravitation

10-1 Gravitation is a force of universal importance

10-2 Newton’s law of universal gravitation explains the orbit of the Moon

10-3 The gravitational potential energy of two objects is negative and increases toward zero as the objects are moved farther apart

10-4 Newton’s law of universal gravitation explains Kepler’s laws for the orbits of planets and satellites

10-5 Apparent weightlessness can have major physiological effects on space travelers

11. Fluids

11-1 Liquids and gases are both examples of fluids

11-2 Density measures the amount of mass per unit volume

11-3 Pressure in a fluid is caused by the impact of molecules

11-4 In a fluid at rest, pressure increases with increasing depth

11-5 Scientists and medical professionals use various units for measuring fluid pressure

11-6 A difference in pressure on opposite sides of an object produces a net force on the object

11-7 A pressure increase at one point in a fluid causes a pressure increase throughout the fluid

11-8 Archimedes’ principle helps us understand buoyancy

11-9 Fluids in motion behave differently depending on the flow speed and the fluid viscosity

11-10 Bernoulli’s equation helps us relate pressure and speed in fluid motion

11-11 Viscosity is important in many types of fluid flow

11-12 Surface tension explains the shape of raindrops and how respiration is possible

12. Oscillations

12-1 We live in a world of oscillations

12-2 Oscillations are caused by the interplay between a restoring force and inertia

12-3 The simplest form of oscillation occurs when the restoring force obeys Hooke’s law

12-4 Mechanical energy is conserved in simple harmonic motion

12-5 The motion of a pendulum is approximately simple harmonic

12-6 A physical pendulum has its mass distributed over its volume

12-7 When damping is present, the amplitude of an oscillating system decreases over time

12-8 Forcing a system to oscillate at the right frequency can cause resonance

13. Waves

13-1 Waves are disturbances that travel from place to place

13-2 Mechanical waves can be transverse, longitudinal, or a combination of these

13-3 Sinusoidal waves are related to simple harmonic motion

13-4 The propagation speed of a wave depends on the properties of the wave medium

13-5 When two waves are present simultaneously, the total disturbance is the sum of the individual waves

13-6 A standing wave is caused by interference between waves traveling in opposite directions

13-7 Wind instruments, the human voice, and the human ear use standing sound waves

13-8 Two sound waves of slightly different frequencies produce beats

13-9 The intensity of a wave equals the power that it delivers per square meter

13-10 The frequency of a sound depends on the motion of the source and the listener

14. Thermodynamics I

14-1 A knowledge of thermodynamics is essential for understanding almost everything around you—including your own body

14-2 Temperature is a measure of the energy within a substance

14-3 In a gas, the relationship between temperature and molecular kinetic energy is a simple one

14-4 Most substances expand when the temperature increases

14-5 Heat is energy that flows due to a temperature difference

14-6 Energy must enter or leave an object in order for it to change phase

14-7 Heat can be transferred by radiation, convection, or conduction

15. Thermodynamics II

15-1 The laws of thermodynamics involve energy and entropy

15-2 The first law of thermodynamics relates heat flow, work done, and internal energy change

15-3 A graph of pressure versus volume helps to describe what happens in a thermodynamic process

15-4 More heat is required to change the temperature of a gas isobarically than isochorically

15-5 The second law of thermodynamics describes why some processes are impossible

15-6 The entropy of a system is a measure of its disorder

16. Electrostatics I: Electric Charge, Forces, and Fields

16-1 Electric forces and electric charges are all around you—and within you

16-2 Matter contains positive and negative electric charge

16-3 Charge can flow freely in a conductor, but not in an insulator

16-4 Coulomb’s law describes the force between charged objects

16-5 The concept of electric field helps us visualize how charges exert forces at a distance

16-6 Gauss’s law gives us more insight into the electric field

16-7 In certain situations Gauss’s law helps us to calculate the electric field and to determine how charge is distributed

17. Electrostatics II: Electric Potential Energy and Electric Potential

17-1 Electric energy is important in nature, technology, and biological systems

17-2 Electric potential energy changes when a charge moves in an electric field

17-3 Electric potential equals electric potential energy per charge

17-4 The electric potential has the same value everywhere on an equipotential surface

17-5 A capacitor stores equal amounts of positive and negative charge

17-6 A capacitor is a storehouse of electric potential energy

17-7 Capacitors can be combined in series or in parallel

17-8 Placing a dielectric between the plates of a capacitor increases the capacitance

18. Electric Charges in Motion

18-1 Life on Earth and our technological society are only possible because of charges in motion

18-2 Electric current equals the rate at which charge flows

18-3 The resistance to current flow through an object depends on the object’s resistivity and dimensions

18-4 Resistance is important in both technology and physiology

18-5 Kirchhoff’s rules help us to analyze simple electric circuits

18-6 The rate at which energy is produced or taken in by a circuit element depends on current and voltage

18-7 A circuit containing a resistor and capacitor has a current that varies with time

19. Magnetism

19-1 Magnetic forces are interactions between two magnets

19-2 Magnetism is an interaction between moving charges

19-3 A moving point charge can experience a magnetic force

19-4 A mass spectrometer uses magnetic forces to differentiate atoms of different masses

19-5 Magnetic fields exert forces on current-carrying wires

19-6 A magnetic field can exert a torque on a current loop

19-7 Ampère’s law describes the magnetic field created by current-carrying wires

19-8 Two current-carrying wires exert magnetic forces on each other

20. Electromagnetic Induction

20-1 The world runs on electromagnetic induction

20-2 A changing magnetic flux creates an electric field

20-3 Lenz’s law describes the direction of the induced emf

20-4 Faraday’s law explains how alternating currents are generated

21. Alternating-Current Circuits

21-1 Most circuits use alternating current

21-2 We need to analyze ac circuits differently than dc circuits

21-3 Transformers allow us to change the voltage of an ac power source

21-4 An inductor is a circuit element that opposes changes in current

21-5 In a circuit with an inductor and capacitor, charge and current oscillate

21-6 When an ac voltage source is attached in series to an inductor, resistor, and capacitor, the circuit can display resonance

21-7 Diodes are important parts of many common circuits

22. Electromagnetic Waves

22-1 Light is just one example of an electromagnetic wave

22-2 In an electromagnetic plane wave, electric and magnetic fields both oscillate

22-3 Maxwell’s equations explain why electromagnetic waves are possible

22-4 Electromagnetic waves carry both electric and magnetic energy, and come in packets called photons

23. Wave Properties of Light

23-1 The wave nature of light explains much about how light behaves

23-2 Huygens’ principle explains the reflection and refraction of light

23-3 In some cases light undergoes total internal reflection at the boundary between media

23-4 The dispersion of light explains the colors from a prism or a rainbow

23-5 In a polarized light wave, the electric field vector points in a specific direction

23-6 Light waves reflected from the layers of a thin film can interfere with each other, producing dazzling effects

23-7 Interference can occur when light passes through two narrow, parallel slits

23-8 Diffraction is the spreading of light when it passes through a narrow opening

23-9 The diffraction of light through a circular aperture is important in optics

24. Geometrical Optics

24-1 Mirrors or lenses can be used to form images

24-2 A plane mirror produces an image that is reversed back to front

24-3 A concave mirror can produce an image of a different size than the object

24-4 Simple equations give the position and magnification of the image made by a concave mirror

24-5 A convex mirror always produces an image that is smaller than the object

24-6 The same equations used for concave mirrors also work for convex mirrors

24-7 Convex lenses form images like concave mirrors and vice versa

24-8 The focal length of a lens is determined by its index of refraction and the curvature of its surfaces

24-9 A camera and the human eye use different methods to focus on objects at various distances

25. Relativity

25-1 The concepts of relativity may seem exotic, but they’re part of everyday life

25-2 Newton’s mechanics include some ideas of relativity

25-3 The Michelson-Morley experiment shows that light does not obey Newtonian relativity

25-4 Einstein’s relativity predicts that the time between events depends on the observer

25-5 Einstein’s relativity also predicts that the length of an object depends on the observer

25-6 The relative velocity of two objects is constrained by the speed of light, the ultimate speed limit

25-7 The equations for momentum and kinetic energy must be modified at very high speeds

25-8 Einstein’s general theory of relativity describes the fundamental nature of gravity

26. Quantum Physics and Atomic Structure

26-1 Experiments that probe the nature of light and matter reveal the limits of classical physics

26-2 The photoelectric effect and blackbody radiation show that light is absorbed and emitted in the form of photons

26-3 As a result of its photon character, light changes wavelength when it is scattered

26-4 Matter, like light, has aspects of both waves and particles

26-5 The spectra of light emitted and absorbed by atoms show that atomic energies are quantized

26-6 Models by Bohr and Schrödinger give insight into the intriguing structure of the atom

27. Nuclear Physics

27-1 The quantum concepts that help explain atoms are essential for understanding the nucleus

27-2 The strong force holds nuclei together

27-3 The binding energy of nuclei helps explain why some are more stable than others

27-4 The largest nuclei can release energy by undergoing fission and splitting apart

27-5 The smallest nuclei can release energy if they are forced to fuse together

27-6 Unstable nuclei may emit alpha, beta, or gamma radiation

28. Particle Physics

28-1 Studying the ultimate constituents of matter helps reveal the nature of the physical universe

28-2 Most forms of matter can be explained by just a handful of fundamental particles

28-3 Four fundamental forces describe all interactions between material objects

28-4 We live in an expanding universe, and the nature of most of its contents is a mystery

Appendix A SI Units and Conversion Factors

Appendix B Numerical Data

Appendix C Periodic Table of Elements

Math Tutorial MT1