Euclidean and Non-Euclidean Geometries
Fourth Edition   ©2008

Euclidean and Non-Euclidean Geometries

Development and History

Marvin J. Greenberg (University of California, Santa Cruz)

  • ISBN-10: 0-7167-9948-0; ISBN-13: 978-0-7167-9948-1; Format: Cloth Text, 512 pages

Chapter 1 Euclid’s Geometry
Very Brief Survey of the Beginnings of Geometry
The Pythagoreans
Plato
Euclid of Alexandria
The Axiomatic Method
Undefined Terms
Euclid’s First Four Postulates
The Parallel Postulate
Attempts to Prove the Parallel Postulate
The Danger in Diagrams
The Power of Diagrams
Straightedge-and-Compass Constructions, Briefly
Descartes’ Analytic Geometry and Broader Idea of Constructions
Briefly on the Number ð
Conclusion

 

Chapter 2 Logic and Incidence Geometry
Elementary Logic
Theorems and Proofs
RAA Proofs
Negation
Quantifiers
Implication
Law of Excluded Middle and Proof by Cases
Brief Historical Remarks
Incidence Geometry
Models
Consistency
Isomorphism of Models
Projective and Affine Planes
Brief History of Real Projective Geometry
Conclusion

 

Chapter 3 Hilbert’s Axioms
Flaws in Euclid
Axioms of Betweenness
Axioms of Congruence
Axioms of Continuity
Hilbert’s Euclidean Axiom of Parallelism
Conclusion

 

Chapter 4 Neutral Geometry
Geometry without a Parallel Axiom
Alternate Interior Angle Theorem
Exterior Angle Theorem
Measure of Angles and Segments
Equivalence of Euclidean Parallel Postulates
Saccheri and Lambert Quadrilaterals
Angle Sum of a Triangle
Conclusion

 

Chapter 5 History of the Parallel Postulate
Review
Proclus
Equidistance
Wallis
Saccheri
Clairaut’s Axiom and Proclus’ Theorem
Legendre
Lambert and Taurinus
Farkas Bolyai

 

Chapter 6 The Discovery of Non-Euclidean Geometry
János Bolyai
Gauss
Lobachevsky
Subsequent Developments
Non-Euclidean Hilbert Planes
The Defect
Similar Triangles
Parallels Which Admit a Common Perpendicular
Limiting Parallel Rays, Hyperbolic Planes
Classification of Parallels
Strange New Universe?

 

Chapter 7 Independence of the Parallel Postulate
Consistency of Hyperbolic Geometry
Beltrami’s Interpretation
The Beltrami–Klein Model
The Poincaré Models
Perpendicularity in the Beltrami–Klein Model
A Model of the Hyperbolic Plane from Physics
Inversion in Circles, Poincaré Congruence
The Projective Nature of the Beltrami–Klein Model
Conclusion

 

Chapter 8 Philosophical Implications, Fruitful Applications
What Is the Geometry of Physical Space?
What Is Mathematics About?
The Controversy about the Foundations of Mathematics
The Meaning
The Fruitfulness of Hyperbolic Geometry for Other Branches of Mathematics, Cosmology, and Art

 

Chapter 9 Geometric Transformations
Klein’s Erlanger Programme
Groups
Applications to Geometric Problems
Motions and Similarities
Reflections
Rotations
Translations
Half-Turns

Ideal Points in the Hyperbolic Plane
Parallel Displacements
Glides
Classification of Motions
Automorphisms of the Cartesian Model
Motions in the Poincaré Model
Congruence Described by Motions
Symmetry 

 

Chapter 10 Further Results in Real Hyperbolic Geometry
Area and Defect
The Angle of Parallelism
Cycles 
The Curvature of the Hyperbolic Plane 
Hyperbolic Trigonometry 
Circumference and Area of a Circle 
Saccheri and Lambert Quadrilaterals 
Coordinates in the Real Hyperbolic Plane 
The Circumscribed Cycle of a Triangle 
Bolyai’s Constructions in the Hyperbolic Plane 

 

Appendix A
Appendix B
Axioms
Bibliography
Symbols
Name Index
Subject Index