Eighth Edition   ©2019

Everything's an Argument

Andrea A. Lunsford (Stanford University) , John J. Ruszkiewicz (The University of Texas at Austin) , Keith Walters (Portland State University)

  • ISBN-10: 1-319-05627-X; ISBN-13: 978-1-319-05627-8; Format: Paper Text, 608 pages

Part 1: Reading and Understanding Arguments
1. Understanding Arguments and Reading Them Critically
Everything Is an Argument
Why Read Arguments Critically and Rhetorically
Why Listen to Arguments Rhetorically and Respectfully
Why We Make Arguments
Occasions for Argument
Kinds of Argument
STASIS QUESTIONS AT WORK
Appealing to Audiences
CULTURAL CONTEXTS FOR ARGUMENT
2. Arguments Based on Emotion: Pathos
Reading Critically for Pathos
Using Emotions to Build Bridges
Using Emotions to Sustain an Argument
Using Humor
Using Arguments Based on Emotion
3. Arguments Based on Character: Ethos
Thinking Critically About Arguments Based on Character
Establishing Trustworthiness and Credibility
Claiming Authority
Coming Clean about Motives
CULTURAL CONTEXTS FOR ARGUMENT
4. Arguments Based on Facts and Reason: Logos
Thinking Critically About Hard Evidence
Using Reason and Common Sense
CULTURAL CONTEXTS FOR ARGUMENT
Providing Logical Structures for Argument
5. Fallacies of Argument
Fallacies of Emotional Argument
Fallacies of Ethical Argument
Fallacies of Logical Argument
6. Rhetorical Analysis
Composing a Rhetorical Analysis
Understanding the Purpose of Arguments You Are Analyzing
Understanding Who Makes an Argument
Identifying and Appealing to Audiences
Examining Arguments Based on Emotion: Pathos
Examining Arguments Based on Character: Ethos
Examining Arguments Based on Facts and Reason: Logos
Examining the Arrangement and Media of Arguments
Looking at Style
Examining a Rhetorical Analysis
*Nicholas Kristof, Fleeing to the Mountains
*Cameron Hauer, Appeal, Audience, and Narrative in Kristof’s Wilderness
GUIDE TO WRITING A RHETORICAL ANALYSIS
Part 2: Writing Arguments
7. Structuring Arguments

The Classical Oration
Rogerian and Invitational Arguments
Toulmin Argument
*Stephen L. Carter, Offensive Speech Is Free Speech. If Only We’d Listen
CULTURAL CONTEXTS FOR ARGUMENT
8. Arguments of Fact
Understanding Arguments of Fact
Characterizing Factual Arguments
Developing a Factual Argument
GUIDE TO WRITING AN ARGUMENT OF FACT
Two Sample Factual Arguments
*Kate Beispel, The Snacktivities and Musings of a Millennial Foodie (student essay)
*Michael Hiltzik, Don’t Believe Facebook: The Demise of the Written Word Is Very Far Off
9. Arguments of Definition
Understanding Arguments of Definition
Kinds of Definition
Developing a Definitional Argument
GUIDE TO WRITING AN ARGUMENT OF DEFINITION
Two Sample Definitional Arguments
Natasha Rodriguez, Who Are You Calling Underprivileged? (student essay)
*Rob Jenkins, Defining the Relationship
10. Evaluations
Understanding Evaluations
Criteria of Evaluation
Characterizing Evaluation
Developing an Evaluative Argument
GUIDE TO WRITING AN EVALUATION
Two Sample Evaluations
*Jenny Kim, The Toxicity in Learning (student essay)
*Becca Stenak, I Took Vitamins Every Day for a Decade. Then I Found Out They’re Useless
11. Causal Arguments
Understanding Causal Arguments
Characterizing Causal Arguments
Developing Causal Arguments
GUIDE TO WRITING A CAUSAL ARGUMENT
Two Sample Causal Arguments
*Laura Tarrant, Forever Alone (and Perfectly Fine) (student essay)
*Pascal-Emmanuel Gobry, America’s Birthrate Is Now a National Emergency
12. Proposals
Understanding and Categorizing Proposals
Characterizing Proposals
Developing Proposals
GUIDE TO WRITING A PROPOSAL
Two Sample Proposals
*Caleb Wong, Addiction to Social Media: How to Overcome It (student essay)
*Lenore Skenazy, My Free-Range Parenting Manifesto
Part 3: Style and Presentation in Arguments
13. Style in Arguments

Style and Word Choice
Sentence Structure and Argument
Punctuation and Argument
Special Effects: Figurative Language
CULTURAL CONTEXTS FOR ARGUMENT
14. Visual Rhetoric
The Power of Visual Arguments
Using Visuals in Your Own Arguments
15. Presenting Arguments
Class and Public Discussions
CULTURAL CONTEXTS FOR ARGUMENT
Preparing a Presentation
16. Multimodal Arguments
Old Media Transformed by New Media
New Content in New Media
New Audiences in New Media
Analyzing Multimodal Arguments
Making Multimodal Arguments
Part 4: Research and Arguments
17. Academic Arguments

Understanding What Academic Argument Is
Developing an Academic Argument
Two Sample Academic Arguments
Charlotte Geaghan-Breiner, Where the Wild Things Should Be: Healing Nature Deficit Disorder through the Schoolyard (student essay)
*Sidra Montgomery, The Emotional Work of "Thank You For Your Service"
18. Finding Evidence
Considering the Rhetorical Situation
Using Data and Evidence from Research Sources
SEARCHING ONLINE OR IN DATABASES
Collecting Data on Your Own
19. Evaluating Sources
Assessing Print Sources
Assessing Electronic Sources
Assessing Field Research
20. Using Sources
Practicing Infotention
Building a Critical Mass
Synthesizing Information
21. Plagiarism and Academic Integrity
Giving Credit
Getting Permission for and Using Copyrighted Internet Sources
Acknowledging Your Sources Accurately and Appropriately
Acknowledging Collaboration
22. Documenting Sources
MLA Style
APA Style
Index