Exploring Chemical Analysis
Fifth Edition   ©2012

Exploring Chemical Analysis

Daniel C. Harris (Michelson Laboratory, China Lake)

  • ISBN-10: 1-4292-7503-0; ISBN-13: 978-1-4292-7503-3; Format: Paper Text, 658 pages

Chapter 0 The Analytical Process
Cocaine Use?  Ask the River
0-1  The Analytical Chemist's Job
0-2   General Steps in a Chemical Analysis
  Box 0-1 Constructing a Representative Sample

Chapter 1 Chemical Measurements
Biochemical Measurements with a Nanoelectrode
1-1 SI Units and Prefixes
  Box 1-1 Exocytosis of Neurotransmitters
1-2 Conversion Between Units
1-3 Chemical Concentrations
1-4 Preparing Solutions
1-5 The Equilibrium Constant
Chapter 2 Tools of the Trade
Catching a Cold with a Quartz Crystal Microbalance
2-1 Safety, Waste Disposal, and Green Chemistry
2-2 Your Lab Notebook
  Box 2-1  Dan’s Lab Notebook Entry
2-3 The Analytical Balance
2-4 Burets
2-5 Volumetric Flasks
2-6 Pipets and Syringes
2-7 Filtration
2-8 Drying
2-9 Calibration of Volumetric Glassware
2-10 Methods of Sample Preparation
  Reference Procedure:  Calibrating a 50-mL buret
Chapter 3 Math Toolkit
Experimental Error
3-1 Significant Figures
3-2 Significant Figures in Arithmetic
3-3 Types of Error
  Box 3-1 What Are Standard Reference Materials?
  Box 3-2 Case Study:  Systematic Error in Ozone Measurement

3-4 Propagation of Uncertainty
3-5 Introducing Spreadsheets
3-6 Graphing in Excel
Chapter 4 Statistics
Is My Red Blood Cell Count High Today?
4-1 The Gaussian Distribution
4-2 Comparison of Standard Deviations with the F Test
  Box 4-1 Choosing the Null Hypothesis in Epidemiology
4-3 Student's t
4-4 A Spreadsheet for the t test
4-5 Grubbs Test for an Outlier
4-6 Finding the “Best” Straight Line
4-7 Constructing a Calibration Curve
4-8 A Spreadsheet for Least Squares
Chapter 5 Quality Assurance and Calibration Methods
The Need for Quality Assurance
5-1 Basics of Quality Assurance
  Box 5-1 Control Charts 
5-2 Validation of an Analytical Procedure
5-3 Standard Addition
5-4 Internal Standards
Chapter 6 Good Titrations
Titration on Mars
6-1 Principles of Volumetric Analysis
6-2 Titration Calculations
6-3 Chemistry in a Fishtank
  Box 6-1 Studying a Marine Ecosystem
6-4 Solubility Product
  Box 6-2 The Logic of Approximations
6-5 Titration of a Mixture
6-6 Titrations Involving Silver Ion 
  Demonstration 6-1  Fajans Titration
Chapter 7 Gravimetric and Combustion Analysis
The Geologic Time Scale and Gravimetric Analysis
7-1 Examples of Gravimetric Analysis
  Box 7-1 Shorthand for Organic Structures
7-2 Precipitation
  Demonstration 7-1  Colloids, Dialysis, and Microdialysis
7-3 Examples of Gravimetric Calculations
7-4 Combustion Analysis
Chapter 8 Introducing Acids and Bases
Acid Rain
8-1 What Are Acids and Bases?
8-2 Relation Between [H+], [OH-], and pH
8-3 Strengths of Acids and Bases
  Demonstration 8-1  HCl Fountain
8-4 pH of Strong Acids and Bases
8-5 Tools for Dealing with Weak Acids and Bases
8-6 Weak-Acid Equilibrium
  Box 8-1 Quadratic Equations
  Demonstration 8-2  Acid Rain Chemistry

8-7 Weak-Base Equilibrium

Chapter 9 Buffers
Measuring pH of Natural Waters with Acid-Base Indicators
9-1 What You Mix Is What You Get
9-2 The Henderson-Hasselbalch Equation
9-3 A Buffer in Action
  Box 9-1 Strong Plus Weak Reacts Completely
  Demonstration 9-1  How Buffers Works

9-4 Preparing Buffers
9-5 Buffer Capacity
9-6 How Acid-Base Indicators Work
  Demonstration 9-2  Indicators and Carbonic Acid
  Box 9-2 The Secret of Carbonless Copy Paper

Chapter 10 Acid-Base Titrations
Kjeldahl Nitrogen Analysis: Chemistry Behind the Headlines
10-1 Titration of Strong Base with Strong Acid
10-2 Titration of Weak Acid with Strong Base
10-3 Titration of Weak Base with Strong Acid
10-4 Finding the End Point
10-5 Practical Notes
10-6 Kjeldahl Nitrogen Analysis
10-7 Putting Your Spreadsheet to Work
  Reference Procedure:  Preparing standard acid and base
Chapter 11 Polyprotic Acids and Bases
Carbon Dioxide in the Air
11-1 Amino Acids Are Polyprotic
11-2 Finding the pH in Diprotic Systems
  Box 11-1 Carbon Dioxide in the Ocean
11-3 Which Is the Principal Species?
11-4 Titrations in Polyprotic Systems
  Box 11-2 What is Isoelectric Focusing?
Chapter 12 A Deeper Look at Chemical Equilibrium
Chemical Equilibrium in the Environment
12-1 The Effect of Ionic Strength on Solubility of Salts
  Demonstration 12-1  Effect of Ionic Strength on Ion Dissociation
12-2 Activity Coefficients
12-3 Charge and Mass Balances
12-4 Systematic Treatment of Equilibrium
  Box 12-1 Aluminum Mobilization From Minerals by Acid Rain
12-5 Fractional Composition Equations
Chapter 13 EDTA Titrations
Chelation Therapy and Thalassemia
13-1 Metal-Chelate Complexes
13-2 EDTA
  Box 13-2 Notation for Formation Constants
13-3 Metal Ion Indicators
  Demonstration 13-1  Metal Ion Indicator Color Changes
13-4 EDTA Titration Techniques
  Box 13-3  What Is Hard Water?
13-5 The pH-Dependent Metal-EDTA Equilibrium
13-6 EDTA Titration Curves
Chapter 14 Electrode Potentials
Lithium-Ion Battery
14-1 Redox Chemistry and Electricity
  Demonstration 14-1  Electrochemical Writing
14-2 Galvanic Cells
  Demonstration 14-2  The Human Salt Bridge
14-3 Standard Potentials
  Box 14-1 Why Biochemist Use E°'
14-4 The Nernst Equation
14-5 E° and the Equilibrium Constant
14-6 Reference Electrodes
Chapter 15 Electrode Measurements
How Perchlorate Was Discovered on Mars
15-1 The Silver Indicator Electrode
  Demonstration 15-1  Potentiometry with an Oscillating Reaction
15-2 What Is a Junction Potential?
15-3 How Ion-Selective Electrodes Work
15-4 pH Measurement with a Glass Electrode
  Box 15-1 Systematic Error in Rainwater pH Measurement
15-5 Ion-Selective Electrodes
  Box 15-2 Ammonium Ion-Selective Microelectrode
  Box 15-3 Protein Immunosensing by Ion-Selective Electrodes with Electrically Conductive Polymers
Chapter 16 Redox Titrations
High-Temperature Superconductors
  Box 16-1 Environmental Carbon Analysis and Oxygen Demand
16-1 Theory of Redox Titrations
  Demonstration 16-1  Potentiometric Titration of Fe2+ with MnO-4
16-2 Redox Indicators
16-3 Titrations Involving Iodine
  Box 16-2 Disinfecting Drinking Water with Iodine
Chapter 17 Instrumental Methods in Electrochemistry
A Biosensor for Personal Glucose Monitoring
17-1 Electrogravimetric and Coulometric Analysis
17-2 Amperometry
17-3 Voltammetry
17-4 Polarography
Chapter 18 Let There Be Light
The Ozone Hole
18-1 Properties of Light
18-2 Absorption of Light
  Box 18-1 Discovering Beer's Law
  Demonstration 18-1  Absorption Spectra
18-3 Practical Matters
18-4 Using Beer's Law
  Box 18-2 Designing a Colorimetric Reagent to Detect Phosphate
Chapter 19 Spectrophotometry: Instruments and Applications
Flu Virus Identification with an RNA Array and Fluorescent Markers
19-1 The Spectrophotometer
19-2 Analysis of a Mixture
19-3 Spectrophotometric Titrations
19-4 What Happens When a Molecules Absorbs Light?
  Demonstration 19-1  In Which Your Class Really Shines
19-5 Luminescence in Analytical Chemistry
  Box 19-1 How Does a Home Pregnancy Test Work?
Chapter 20 Atomic Spectroscopy
Historical Record of Mercury in the Snow Pack
20-1 What is Atomic Spectroscopy?
  Box 20-1 Atomic Emission Spectroscopy on Mars
20-2 Atomization: Flames, Furnaces, and Plasmas
20-3 How Temperature Affects Atomic Spectroscopy
20-4 Instrumentation
20-5 Interference
20-6 Inductively Coupled Plasma–Mass Spectrometry

Chapter 21 Principles of Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry
Bisphenol A
21-1 What is Chromatography?
21-2 How We Describe a Chromatogram
21-3 Why Do Bands Spread?
  Box 21-1 Polarity
21-4 Mass Spectrometry
  Box 21-2 Volatile Flavor Components of Candy
  Box 21-3 Bisphenol A in Canned Foods

21-5 Information in a Mass Spectrum
Chapter 22 Gas and Liquid Chromatography
Protein Electrospray
22-1 Gas Chromatography
22-2 Classical Liquid Chromatography
22-3 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
22-4 Sample Preparation for Chromatography
Chapter 23 Chromatographic Methods and Capillary Electrophoresis
Chromated Copper Arsenate Wood Preservative
23-1 Ion-Exchange Chromatography
   Box 23-1 Applications of Ion Exchange
23-2 Ion Chromatography
23-3 Molecular Exclusion Chromatography
23-4 Affinity Chromatography
23-5 What is Capillary Electrophoresis?
23-6 How Capillary Electrophoresis Works
23-7 Types of Capillary Electrophoresis
  Box 23-2 What is a Micelle?
23-8 Lab on a Chip:  DNA Profiling
Appendix A:  Solubility Products
Appendix B:  Acid Dissociation Constants
Appendix C:  Standard Reduction Potentials
Appendix D:  Oxidation Numbers and Balancing Redox Equations
Solutions to "Ask Yourself" Questions
Answers to Problems