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First Edition   ©2018

Introductory Chemistry

Kevin Revell

  • ISBN-10: 1-319-08195-9; ISBN-13: 978-1-319-08195-9; Format: Cloth Text, 592 pages

Chapter 1: Foundations

Section 1.1 Chemistry:  Part of Everything You Do
Section 1.2 Describing Matter
        Composition and Structure
        Pure Substances and Mixtures
        States of Matter
        Properties and Changes
Section 1.3 Energy and Change 
Section 1.4 The Scientific Method

Chapter 2: Measurement

A Strange Death
Section 2.1 Measurement:  A Foundation of Good Science
         Scientific Notation: Working with Very Large and Very Small Numbers
         Converting from Scientific Notation to Standard Notation
         Converting from Standard Notation to Scientific Notation
         Calculations Involving Scientific Notation
         Units of Measurement
         Describing the Quality of Measurements
         Describing Precision: Significant Digits
         Determining the Number of Significant Digits in a Measurement 
        Working with Exact Numbers 
        Using Significant Digits in Calculations
Section 2.2 Unit Conversion
         Dimensional Analysis
         Problems Involving Multiple Conversions
         Converting between Volume Units
         Converting Units Raised to a Power
Section 2.3 Density:  Relating Mass to Volume
         Converting between Mass and Volume
         Will It Float?
Section 2.4 Measuring Temperature
Chapter 3: Atoms

Mercury Contamination from Small-Scale Gold Mining
Section 3.1 Atoms: The Essential Building Blocks
         Uncovering the Atom: From Democritus to Dalton
         Can We See Atoms?
Section 3.2 The Periodic Table of the Elements
         Regions of the Periodic Table
         Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids
         Groups (Families) of Elements
Section 3.3 Uncovering Atomic Structure
         The Discovery of Charged Particles
         The Discovery of the Nucleus
Section 3.4 Describing Atoms: Identity and Mass
         Atomic Number and Mass Number
         Average Atomic Mass

Section 3.5 Electrons—A Preview
         The Bohr Model and the Quantum Model 
         The Formation of Ions

Chapter 4: Light and Electronic Structure

Edging toward Solar Energy
Section 4.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum 
         Wavelength and Frequency
         The Energy of a Photon
Section 4.2 Color, Line Spectra, and the Bohr Model
         Color and Line Spectra 
         The Bohr Model
Section 4.3 The Quantum Model and Electron Orbitals
         The Uncertainty Principle and the Wave Nature of Electrons
         Energy Levels and Sublevels
Section 4.4 Describing Electron Configurations
         Valence Electrons and the Octet Rule
         Electron Configurations for Larger Atoms
         Electron Configurations for Ions
Section 4.5 Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table
Chapter 5: Chemical Bonds & Compounds

An Unexpected Combination: Lithium Carbonate and Bipolar Disorder
Section 5.1 Lewis Symbols and the Octet Rule
Section 5.2 Ions
         Cations: Ions with a Positive Charge
         Naming Cations
         Anions: Ions with a Negative Charge
         Naming Anions
         Polyatomic Ions
         Naming Polyatomic Ions
         A Summary of the Common Ions
Section 5.3 Ionic Bonds and Compounds 
         Ionic Bonds and Ionic Lattices 
         Predicting Formulas for Ionic Compounds 
         Naming Ionic Compounds
Section 5.4 Covalent Bonding 
         Nonmetal–Nonmetal Bonds
         Covalent Compounds
         Naming Covalent Compounds
Section 5.5 Distinguishing Ionic and Covalent Compounds 
Section 5.6 Aqueous Solutions:  How Ionic and Covalent Compounds Differ
 Section 5.7 Acids – An Introduction 
         Naming Acids
         Binary Acids

Chapter 6: Chemical Reactions

 Lost Cities of the Maya
Section 6.1 Chemical Equations
         Balancing Equations
         Strategies for Balancing Equations
         Equations with Phase Notations
Section 6.2 Classifying Reactions  
Section 6.3 Reactions Between Metals and Nonmetals       
Section 6.4 Combustion Reactions  
Section 6.5 Reactions in Aqueous Solution  
         Representing Dissociation: Molecular and Ionic Equations
         Solubility Rules and Precipitation Reactions
         Acid-Base Neutralization Reactions
         Acids and Bases
         Neutralization Reactions

Chapter 7: Mass Stoichiometry

Process Development
Section 7.1 Formula Mass and Percent Composition
         Formula Mass 
         Percent Composition 
          How Chemists Measure Formula Mass and Percent Composition
         Mass Spectrometry
         Elemental Analysis
Section 7.2 Connecting Atomic Mass to Large-Scale Mass:  The Mole Concept   
         Avogadro’s Number and the Mole
         Converting between Grams, Moles, and Particles
Section 7.3 The Mole Concept in Balanced Equations       
         Stoichiometry Problems
         Gram-to-Gram Questions
         Strategies for Solving Stoichiometry Problems
         Calculations with Limiting Reagents
         Finding the Leftovers
Section 7.4 Theoretical and Percent Yield  
Chapter 8: Energy

The Corn Ethanol Debate
Section 8.1
         Units of Energy
         Heat and Work in Chemical Changes
         Endothermic and Exothermic Changes
         The Law of Conservation of Energy
Section 8.2
         Specific Heat and Heat Capacity
         Calorimetry: Measuring Heat Flow
         Coffee Cup Calorimetry
         Bomb Calorimetry
Section 8.3
         Fuel Value
         Reaction Enthalpy

Chapter 9:  Covalent Bonding and Molecules

The Shortest Race
Section 9.1 Covalent Molecules
         Representing Covalent Structures 
         Exceptions to the Octet Rule
         Drawing Lewis Structures
Section 9.2 Molecules and Charge
         Polyatomic Ions and Formal Charge
         Drawing Lewis Structures for Polyatomic Ions
        Choosing the Best Lewis Structure
Section 9.3 Shapes of Molecules
Section 9.4 Polar Bonds and Molecules
         Electronegativity and Polar Covalent Bonds
         Molecules with Dipoles 
         Identifying Molecules with a Net Dipole
         How Dipoles Affect Properties—A Preview

Chapter 10: Solids, Liquids, and Gases

The North Dakota Boom
Section 10.1 Interactions between Particles
Section 10.2 Solids and Liquids
         Ionic Substances
         Metallic Substances
         Molecular Substances
         Dipole–Dipole Interactions
        Hydrogen Bonding
         London Dispersion Forces 
        Summarizing Intermolecular Forces
        Covalent Networks and Polymers
Section 10.3 Describing Gases Pressure
         Measuring Pressure
Section 10.4 The Gas Laws
         Boyle’s Law
         Charles’s Law 
         Using Charles’s Law to Find Absolute Zero
         Solving Volume–Temperature Problems
         Using Charles’s Law
          The Combined Gas Law
         Avogadro’s Law
         The Ideal Gas Law
         Mixtures of Gases
         A Molecular View of the Gas Laws
Section 10.5 Diffusion and Effusion
Section 10.6 Gas Stoichiometry

Chapter 11: Solutions

The Perfect Cup of Coffee
Section 11.1 Describing Concentration 
         Concentration by Percent 
         Percent by Mass and Volume 
         Mass/Volume Percent
         Very Dilute Solutions: ppm and ppb
         Preparing Solutions of Known Molarity
         Preparing Dilute Solutions
         Using Square Brackets to Represent Concentration 
 Section 11.2 Electrolyte Solutions
         Electrolyte Concentrations 
         Colligative Properties 
         Freezing Point Depression 
         Boiling Point Elevation
         Osmotic Pressure
Section 11.3 Reactions in Solution—A Review and a Preview 
         Precipitation Reactions
         Acid-Base Neutralization Reactions
         Metal Displacement Reactions
Section 11.4 Solution Stoichiometry
         Gravimetric Analysis
         Advanced Stoichiometry Problems

Chapter 12: Acids & Bases

Cocaine: Ruin and Recovery
Section 12.1 Introduction to Acids and Bases 
         The Arrhenius Definition
         Polyprotic Acids
         The Brønsted-Lowry Definition
Section 12.2 Acid-Base equilibrium Reactions 
         Are Conjugate Bases Basic?
Section 12.3 Reactions Involving Acids and Bases 
         Neutralization Reactions
         Reactions of Acids with Metal
         Formation of Acids from Nonmetal Oxides
Section 12.4 Acid and Base Concentration 
         Concentrations of H1 and OH2 in Aqueous Solutions
         Math Review: Exponential and Scientific Notation
         Connecting [OH2] and [H1]
        The pH Scale
Section 12.5 Measuring Acid and Base Concentration 
         Determining pH in the Laboratory
         Acid-Base Titrations
         Acid-Base Titrations with Different Coefficients
Section 12.6 Buffers and Biological pH

Chapter 13: Reaction Rates & Equilibrium

The Haber-Bosch Process
13.1 Reaction Rates
         How Concentration and Temperature Affect Reaction Rates
         How Changes in Energy Affect Reaction Rates
         Describing Energy Changes in Chemistry: Reaction Energy Diagrams

13.2 Equilibrium Reactions

13.3 Equilibrium Expressions
        Equilibrium Expressions Involving Solvents
        Equilibrium Expressions Involving Solids
        Solubility Products
        Equilibrium Expressions Involving Gases

 13.4 Le Chatelier’s Principle

      Equilibrium and Concentration
      Equilibrium and Temperature
      Equilibrium and Pressure

Chapter 14: Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Volta’s Marvel
14.1 Oxidation and Reduction
        Oxidation Numbers

14.2 Types of Redox Reactions
     Reactions of Metals with Nonmetals
     Combustion Reactions
     Metal Displacement Reactions
     The Activity Series
     Reactions of Metals with Acid and Water

14.3 Half-Reactions and Batteries


14.4 Balancing Redox Equations

14.5 Other Applications of Redox Reactions
    Fuel Cells

Chapter 15: Organic Chemistry and Biomolecules

Robert Grubbs
15.1 Organic Chemistry and the Carbon Cycle

15.2 Covalent Bonding with Carbon and Other Nonmetals

15.3 Drawing Covalent Structures
    Condensed Structures
    Skeletal Structures

15.4 Major Functional Groups
    Hydrocarbon Functional Groups
    Alkanes and Cycloalkanes
    Alkenes and Alkynes
    Aromatic Compounds
    Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups
    Alcohols and Ethers
    Carbonyl Groups
    A Summary of Oxygen-Containing Groups
    Nitrogen-Containing Functional Groups

15.5 Polymers and Plastics

15.6 Biomolecules—An Introduction
     Amino Acids and Proteins
     Amino Acids
     Peptides and Peptide Bonds
Chapter 16: Nuclear Chemistry


16.1 Nuclear Changes
      The Nucleus—A Review
       Nuclear Reactions

16.2 Radioactivity
     Types of Radioactive Decay
     Alpha Decay
     Beta Decay
     Gamma Decay
     Radioactive Decay Series
     Health Effects of Radiation Exposure
     Measuring Radiation
     Common Exposure Levels
     Uses of Radioactive Nuclides
     Uses in Medicine
     Uses in Geology and Archaeology
     Carbon-14 Dating of Plant and Animal Remains
     Dating of Exposed Rock Surfaces Using Be-10 and Al-26

16.3 Energy Changes in Nuclear Reactions
     Mass Defect, Binding Energy, and Einstein’s Famous Equation
    Nuclide Stability

16.4 Nuclear Power: Fission and Fusion
    Uranium Enrichment
    Fission Reactor Design
    Waste from Nuclear Fusion
    Replicating Fusion on Earth
    Are We There Yet?