(University of California, Los Angeles)
Thomas R. Martin
(College of the Holy Cross)
Barbara H. Rosenwein
(Loyola University Chicago)
Bonnie G. Smith
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Chapter 16: Absolutism, Constitutionalism, and the Search for Order, 1640–1700
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The Combined Volume includes all chapters.
Volume 1 includes Chapters 1-17.
Volume 2 includes Chapters 14-29.
NOTE: LaunchPad material that does not appear in the print book – including guided reading exercises, source feature quizzes, LearningCurve adaptive quizzes, summative quizzes, all of the documents from the companion reader – has been labeled on this table of contents as shown. Each chapter in LaunchPad also comes with a wealth of additional documents, videos, key terms flashcards, map quizzes, and much more, all of which can be easily integrated and assigned.
Versions and Supplements
Maps and Figures
1. Early Western Civilization, 400,000–1000 B.C.E.
Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad
From the Stone Age to Mesopotamian Civilization, 400,000-1000 B.C.E.
Life and Change in the Stone Age
The Emergence of Cities in Mesopotamia, 4000–2350 B.C.E.
Metals and Empire Making: The Akkadians and the Ur III Dynasty, c. 2350–c. 2000 B.C.E.
The Achievements of the Assyrians, the Babylonians, and the Canaanites, 2000–1000 B.C.E.
Egypt, the First Unified Nation, 3050–1000 B.C.E.
From the Unification of Egypt to the Old Kingdom, 3050–2190 B.C.E.
The Middle and New Kingdoms in Egypt, 2061–1081 B.C.E.
The Hittites, the Minoans, and the Mycenaeans, 2200–1000 B.C.E.
The Hittites, 1750–1200 B.C.E.
The Minoans, 2200–1400 B.C.E.
The Mycenaeans, 1800–1000 B.C.E.
The Violent End to Early Western Civilization, 1200–1000 B.C.E.
Mapping the West: The Violent End to Early Western Civilization, 1200–1000 B.C.E.
Map Quiz LaunchPad
Chapter 1 Review
Primary Source Analysis: Hammurabi’s Laws for Physicians LaunchPad
Quiz for Primary Source Analysis LaunchPad
Contrasting Views: The Gains and the Losses of Life in Civilization vs. Life in Nature LaunchPad
Quiz for Contrasting Views LaunchPad
Terms of History: Civilization LaunchPad
Quiz for Terms of History LaunchPad
Summative Quiz LaunchPad
Documents from Sources of The Making of the West LaunchPad
Document 1.1 Defining Humanity: Epic of Gilgamesh (c. 2000 B.C.E.)
Quiz for Document 1.1 LaunchPad
Document 1.2 Establishing Law and Justice: King Hammurabi, The Code of Hammurabi (Early Eighteenth Century B.C.E.)
Quiz for Document 1.2 LaunchPad
Document 1.3 Praising the One God: Hymn to the Aten (Fourteenth Century B.C.E.)
Quiz for Document 1.3 LaunchPad
Document 1.4 Sources in Conversation: Writing in Life and the Afterlife: Agricultural scenes, Tomb of Nakhut, (c. 1400-1390 B.C.E.) and Egyptian Scribal Exercise Book (Twelfth Century B.C.E.)Quiz for Sources in Conversation LaunchPad
Document 1.5 Allying for Peace: The "Eternal Treaty" between the Egyptians and Hittites (c. 1259 B.C.E.)
Quiz for Document 1.5 LaunchPad
Chapter 2. Near East Empires and the Reemergence of Civilization in Greece, 1000–500 B.C.E.
From Dark Age to Empire in the Near East, 1000–500 B.C.E.
The New Empire of Assyria, 900–600 B.C.E.
The Neo-Babylonian Empire, 600–539 B.C.E.
The Persian Empire, 557–500 B.C.E.
The Israelites, Origins to 539 B.C.E.
The Reemergence of Greek Civilization, 1000–750 B.C.E.
The Greek Dark Age
The Values of the Olympic Games
Homer, Hesiod, and Divine Justice in Greek Myth
The Creation of the Greek City-State, 750–500 B.C.E.
The Physical Environment of the Greek City-State
Trade and "Colonization," 800–580 B.C.E.
Citizenship and Freedom in the Greek City-State
New Directions for the Greek City-State, 750–500 B.C.E.
Oligarchy in the City-State of Sparta, 700–500 B.C.E.
Tyranny in the City-State of Corinth, 657–585 B.C.E.
Democracy in the City-State of Athens, 632–500 B.C.E.
New Ways of Thought and Expression in Greece, 630–500 B.C.E.
Mapping the West: Mediterranean Civilizations, c. 500 B.C.E.
Chapter 2 Review
Primary Source Analysis: Zaleucus’s Law Code for a Greek City-State in Seventh-Century B.C.E. Italy LaunchPad
Contrasting Views: Persians Debate The Best Form of Government LaunchPad
Terms of History: The State LaunchPad
Document 2.1 Empires and Divine Right: Inscription Honoring Cyrus, King of Persia (r. c. 557–530 B.C.E.)
Quiz for Document 2.1 LaunchPad
Document 2.2 Monotheism and Mosaic Law: The Book of Exodus, Chapters 19–20 (c. Tenth–Sixth Centuries B.C.E.)
Quiz for Document 2.2 LaunchPad
Document 2.3 Concepts of Civilization: Homer, The Odyssey (Eighth Century B.C.E.)
Quiz for Document 2.3 LaunchPad
Document 2.4 Sources in Conversation: Two Visions of the City-State: Tyrtaeus of Sparta and Solon of Athens, Poems (Seventh–Sixth Centuries B.C.E.)
Quiz for Sources in Conversation LaunchPad
Document 2.5 Representations of Difference: Greek Janiform Flask (c. 520-510 B.C.E.)
Quiz for Document 2.5 LaunchPad
Document 2.6 Economics and the Expansion of Slavery: Xenophon, Revenues (Fourth Century B.C.E.)
Quiz for Document 2.6 LaunchPad
Chapter 3. The Greek Golden Age, c. 500–c. 400 B.C.E.
Wars between Persia and Greece, 499–479 B.C.E.
From the Ionian Revolt to the Battle of Marathon, 499–490 B.C.E.
The Great Persian Invasion, 480–479 B.C.E.
Athenian Confidence in the Golden Age, 478–431 B.C.E.
The Establishment of the Athenian Empire
Radical Democracy and Pericles’ Leadership, 461–431 B.C.E.
The Urban Landscape in Athens
Tradition and Innovation in Athens’s Golden Age
Religious Tradition in a Period of Change
Women, Slaves, and Metics
Innovative Ideas in Education, Philosophy, History, and Medicine
The Development of Greek Tragedy
The Development of Greek Comedy
The End of Athens’s Golden Age, 431–403 B.C.E.
The Peloponnesian War, 431–404 B.C.E.
Athens Defeated: Tyranny and Civil War, 404–403 B.C.E.
Mapping the West: Greece, Europe, and the Mediterranean, 400 B.C.E.
Chapter 3 Review
Primary Source Analysis: How to Argue Both Sides of a Case LaunchPad
Contrasting Views: The Nature of Women and Marriage LaunchPad
Terms of History: Democracy LaunchPad
Document 3.1 The Golden Age of Athens: Thucydides, The Funeral Oration of Pericles (429 B.C.E.)
Quiz for Document 3.1 LaunchPad
Document 3.2 Sources in Conversation: Movement in Stone: Myron of Eleutherai, Discus Thrower (c. 450 B.C.E.) and Atalanta (c. 300-200 B.C.E.)
Document 3.3 The Emergence of Philosophy: Plato, The Apology of Socrates (399 B.C.E.)
Quiz for Document 3.3 LaunchPad
Document 3.4 The Advance of Science: Hippocrates of Cos, On the Sacred Disease (400 B.C.E.)
Quiz for Document 3.4 LaunchPad
Document 3.5 Human Commodities: Auction of confiscated slaves (c. 414 B.C.E.)
Quiz for Document 3.5 LaunchPad
Document 3.6 Domestic Boundaries: Euphiletus, A Husband Speaks in His Own Defense (c. 400 B.C.E.) and Overhead Views of a House on the North Slope of the Areopagus (Fifth Century B.C.E.)
Quiz for Document 3.6 LaunchPad
Document 3.7 Protesting War, Performing Satire: Aristophanes, Lysistrata (411 B.C.E.)
Quiz for Document 3.7 LaunchPad
Chapter 4. From the Classical to the Hellenistic World, 400–30 B.C.E.
Classical Greece after the Peloponnesian War, 400–350 B.C.E.
Athens’s Recovery after the Peloponnesian War
The Execution of Socrates, 399 B.C.E.
The Philosophy of Plato
Aristotle, Scientist and Philosopher
Greek Political Disunity
The Rise of Macedonia, 359–323 B.C.E.
Macedonian Power and Philip II, 359–336 B.C.E.
The Rule of Alexander the Great, 336–323 B.C.E.
The Hellenistic Kingdoms, 323–30 B.C.E.
Creating New Kingdoms
The Layers of Hellenistic Society
The End of the Hellenistic Kingdoms
The Arts under Royal Support
Philosophy for a New Age
Cultural and Religious Transformations
Mapping the West: Roman Takeover of the Hellenistic World, to 30 B.C.E.
Chapter 4 Review
Primary Source Analysis: Epigrams by Women Poets LaunchPad
Contrasting Views: Roman Attitudes Toward Cleopatra VII, The Last Hellenistic Queen LaunchPad
Terms of History: Hellenistic LaunchPad
Document 4.1 The Conquest of New Lands: Arrian, The Campaigns of Alexander the Great (Fourth Century B.C.E.)
Quiz for Document 4.1 LaunchPad
Document 4.2 Imperial Bureaucracy: Zeno, Egyptian Official, Records (259–250 B.C.E.)
Quiz for Document 4.2 LaunchPad
Document 4.3 Everyday Life: Funerary Inscriptions and Epitaphs (Fifth–First Centuries B.C.E.)
Quiz for Document 4.3 LaunchPad
Document 4.4 Sources in Conversation: Modelling Femininity: Terracotta figurines (Second to Third Century B.C.E.)
Document 4.5 In Pursuit of Happiness: Epicurus, Letter to a Friend (Late Third Century B.C.E.)
Quiz for Document 4.5 LaunchPad
Document 4.6 Exacting Science: Archimedes, Letter to Eratosthenes (Third Century B.C.E.) and Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, Archimedes’ "Eureka!" Moment (c. 30–20 B.C.E.)
Quiz for Document 4.6 LaunchPad
Chapter 5. The Rise of Rome and Its Republic, 753–44 B.C.E.
Roman Social and Religious Traditions
Roman Moral Values
The Patron-Client System
The Roman Family
Education for Public Life
Public and Private Religion
From Monarchy to Republic
Roman Society under the Kings, 753–509 B.C.E.
The Early Roman Republic, 509–287 B.C.E.
Roman Imperialism and Its Consequences
Expansion in Italy, 500–220 B.C.E.
Wars with Carthage and in the East, 264–121 B.C.E.
Greek Influence on Roman Literature and the Arts
Stresses on Society from Imperialism
Civil War and the Destruction of the Republic
The Gracchus Brothers and Violence in Politics, 133–121 B.C.E.
Marius and the Origin of Client Armies, 107–100 B.C.E.
Sulla and Civil War, 91–78 B.C.E.
Julius Caesar and the Collapse of the Republic, 83–44 B.C.E.
Mapping the West: The Roman World at the End of the Republic, 44 B.C.E.
Chapter 5 Review
Primary Source Analysis: The Rape and Suicide of Lucretia LaunchPad
Contrasting Views: What Was Julius Caesar Like? LaunchPad
Quiz for Contrasting Views LaunchPad
Terms of History: Republic LaunchPad
Document 5.1 Formalizing Roman Law: The Twelve Tables (451–449 B.C.E.)
Quiz for Document 5.1 LaunchPad
Document 5.2 Sources in Conversation: Artistic Influences: Etruscan Statuette of a Rider (c. 434–400 B.C.E.) and Roman Bust of Lucius Junius Brutus (c. 300 B.C.E.)
Document 5.3 Status and Discrimination: Roman Women Demonstrate against the Oppian Law (195 B.C.E.)
Quiz for Document 5.3 LaunchPad
Document 5.4 "Cultivating Humanity": Cicero, In Defense of Archias (62 B.C.E.)
Quiz for Document 5.4 LaunchPad
Document 5.5 Failure and Factionalism: The Gracchan Reforms (133 B.C.E.)
Quiz for Document 5.5 LaunchPad
Document 5.6 Toward Empire: Julius Caesar, The Gallic War (52 B.C.E.)
Quiz for Document 5.6 LaunchPad
Chapter 6. The Creation of the Roman Empire, 44 B.C.E.–284 C.E.
From Republic to Empire, 44 B.C.E.–14 C.E.
Civil War, 44–27 B.C.E.
The Creation of the Principate, 27 B.C.E.–14 C.E.
Daily Life in the Rome of Augustus
Changes in Education, Literature, and Art in Augustus’s Rome
Politics and Society in the Early Roman Empire
The Perpetuation of the Principate after Augustus, 14–180 C.E.
Life in the Roman Golden Age, 96–180 C.E.
The Emergence of Christianity in the Early Roman Empire
Jesus and His Teachings
Growth of a New Religion
Competing Religious Beliefs
From Stability to Crisis in the Third Century C.E.
Threats to the Northern and Eastern Frontiers of the Early Roman Empire
Uncontrolled Spending, Natural Disasters, and Political Crisis, 193–284 C.E.
Mapping the West: The Roman Empire in Crisis, 284 C.E.
Chapter 6 Review
Primary Source Analysis: A Roman Stoic Philosopher on the Capabilities of Women LaunchPad
Quiz for Primary Source Analysis LaunchPad
Contrasting Views: Christians in the Empire: Conspirators or Faithful Subjects? LaunchPad
Terms of History: Empire LaunchPad
Document 6.1 An Empire Foretold: Virgil, The Aeneid (First Century B.C.E.)
Quiz for Document 6.1 LaunchPad
Document 6.2 An Urban Empire: Notices and Graffiti Describe Life in Pompeii (First Century C.E.)
Quiz for Document 6.2 LaunchPad
Document 6.3 New Influences to the North: Tacitus, Germania (c. 98 C.E.)
Quiz for Document 6.3 LaunchPad
Document 6.4 Sources in Conversation: The Making of a New Religion: The Gospel According to Matthew: The Sermon on the Mount (28 C.E.) and Paul of Tarsus, Letter to the Galatians (c. 50-60 C.E.)
Document 6.5 Deadly Beliefs: The Martyrdom of Saints Perpetua and Felicitas (203 C.E.)
Quiz for Document 6.5 LaunchPad
Document 6.6 Private Piety: Household shrine, Pompeii (first century C.E.)
Quiz for Document 6.6 LaunchPad
Chapter 7. The Transformation of the Roman Empire, 284–600 C.E.
From Principate to Dominate in the Late Roman Empire, 284–395
The Political Transformation and Division of the Roman Empire
The Social Consequences of Financial Pressures
From the Great Persecution to Religious Freedom
The Official Christianization of the Empire, 312–c. 540
Polytheism and Christianity in Competition
The Struggle for Clarification in Christian Belief
The Emergence of Christian Monks
Non-Roman Kingdoms in the Western Roman Empire, c. 370–550s
Non-Roman Migrations into the Western Roman Empire
Social and Cultural Transformation in the Western Roman Empire
The Roman Empire in the East, c. 500–565
Imperial Society in the Eastern Roman Empire
The Reign of Emperor Justinian, 527–565
The Preservation of Classical Traditions in the Late Roman Empire
Mapping the West: Western Europe and the Eastern Roman (or Byzantine) Empire, c. 600
Chapter 7 Review
Primary Source Analysis: The Edict of Milan on Religious Freedom LaunchPad
Contrasting Views: Debate: Did Romans or Huns Better Protect Life, Law, and Freedom? LaunchPad
Terms of History: Barbarian LaunchPad
Document 7.1 Sources in Conversation: The Establishment of Roman Christian Doctrine: Arius, Letter to Alexander, Bishop of Alexandria (c. 320 C.E.) and The Nicene Creed (325 C.E.)
Document 7.2 The Struggle of Conversion: Augustine of Hippo, Confessions (c. 397)
Quiz for Document 7.2 LaunchPad
Document 7.3 The Development of Monasticism: Benedict of Nursia, The Rule of Saint Benedict (c. 540)
Quiz for Document 7.3 LaunchPad
Document 7.4 Community Worship: The Torah niche, Dura-Europos synagogue (c. 244-245 C.E.)
Quiz for Document 7.4 LaunchPad
Document 7.5 Germanic Law in the Roman Empire: The Burgundian Code (c. 475–525 C.E.)
Quiz for Document 7.5 LaunchPad
Document 7.6 Emergence of Byzantium: Procopius, Secret History (550 C.E.)
Quiz for Document 7.6 LaunchPad
Chapter 8. The Heirs of Rome: Islam, Byzantium, and Europe, 600–750
Islam: A New Religion and a New Empire
Nomads and City Dwellers
The Prophet Muhammad and the Faith of Islam
Growth of Islam, c. 610–632
The Caliphs, Muhammad’s Successors, 632–750
Peace and Prosperity in Islamic Lands
Wars on the Frontiers, c. 570–750
From an Urban to a Rural Way of Life
New Military and Cultural Forms
Religion, Politics, and Iconoclasm
Western Europe: A Medley of Kingdoms
Frankish Kingdoms with Roman Roots
Economic Activity in a Peasant Society
The Powerful in Merovingian Society
Christianity and Classical Culture in the British Isles
Unity in Spain, Division in Italy
Political Tensions and the Power of the Pope
Mapping the West: Rome’s Heirs, c. 750
Chapter 8 Review
Primary Source Analysis: Praising a Merovingian Queen LaunchPad
Contrasting Views: Icons: Idols or Aids to Worship LaunchPad
Terms of History: Medieval LaunchPad
Document 8.1 The Foundations of Islam: Qur’an, Suras 1, 53, 98 (c. 610–632)
Quiz for Document 8.1 LaunchPad
Document 8.2 Jihad and Jizya: Islamic Terms of Peace (633–643)
Quiz for Document 8.2 LaunchPad
Document 8.3 Byzantine Life: The Life of St. Theodore of Sykeon (Early Seventh Century)
Quiz for Document 8.3 LaunchPad
Document 8.4 A Noblewoman’s Life: The Life of Lady Balthild, Queen of the Franks (Late Seventh Century)
Quiz for Document 8.4 LaunchPad
Document 8.5 Roman Christian Missions: Pope Gregory the Great, Letters (598–601)
Quiz for Document 8.5 LaunchPad
Document 8.6 Sources in Conversation: Warrior Kings: Helmet fragment from Sutton Hoo, (Early seventh century C.E.) and Beowulf (c. mid-seventh-late tenth century)
Quiz for Sources in Conversation LaunchPad
Chapter 9. From Centralization to Fragmentation, 750–1050
The Byzantine Emperor and Local Elites
The Macedonian Renaissance, c. 870–c. 1025
The Dynatoi: A New Landowning Elite
The Formation of Eastern Europe and Kievan Rus
The Rise and Fall of the Abbasid Caliphate
The Abbasid Caliphate, 750–936
Regional Diversity in Islamic Lands
Unity of Commerce and Language
The Islamic Renaissance, c. 790–c. 1050
The Carolingian Empire
The Rise of the Carolingians
Charlemagne and His Kingdom, 768–814
The Carolingian Renaissance, c. 790–c. 900
Charlemagne’s Successors, 814–911
Land and Power
Viking, Muslim, and Magyar Invasions, c. 790–955
After the Carolingians: The Emergence of Local Rule
Public Power and Private Relationships
Warriors and Warfare
Efforts to Contain Violence
Political Communities in Italy, England, and France
Emperors and Kings in Central and Eastern Europe
Mapping the West: Europe and the Mediterranean, c. 1050
Chapter 9 Review
Primary Source Analysis: Ibn ‘Abd Rabbihi Celebrates a Military Campaign in Verse LaunchPad
Contrasting Views: Charlemagne: Roman Emperor, Father of Europe, or the Chief Bishop? LaunchPad
Terms of History: Feudalism LaunchPad
Document 9.1 The Rule of Charlemagne: General Capitulary for the Missi (802)
Quiz for Document 9.1 LaunchPad
Document 9.2 Sources in Conversation: Conversation: Conflicting Views of Byzantium: The Paris Psalter (c. 950) and Liutprand of Cremona, Report to Otto I (968)
Document 9.3 A New Islamic Dynasty: Ahmad al-Ya‘qubi, Kitab al-buldan (Ninth Century)
Quiz for Document 9.3 LaunchPad
Document 9.4 Advances in Medicine: Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyu Al-razi, A Treatise on the Small-Pox and Measles (c. 910)
Quiz for Document 9.4 LaunchPad
Document 9.5 The Faithful Vassal: Fulbert of Chartres, Letter to William of Aquitaine (1020)
Quiz for Document 9.5 LaunchPad
Chapter 10. Commercial Quickening and Religious Reform, 1050–1150
The Commercial Revolution
Fairs, Towns, and Cities
Organizing Crafts and Commerce
Communes: Self-Government for the Towns
The Commercial Revolution in the Countryside
Beginnings of Reform
The Gregorian Reform and the Investiture Conflict, 1075–1122
The Sweep of Reform
New Monastic Orders of Poverty
Calling the Crusade
The First Crusade
The Crusader States
The Disastrous Second Crusade
The Long-Term Impact of the Crusades
The Revival of Monarchies
Reconstructing the Empire at Byzantium
England under Norman Rule
Praising the King of France
Surviving as Emperor
Mapping the West: Europe and the Mediterranean, c. 1150
Chapter 10 Review
Primary Source Analysis: The First Crusade from the Muslim Point of View LaunchPad
Quiz for Primary Source Analysis LaunchPad
Contrasting Views: Henry IV LaunchPad
Terms of History: The Commercial Revolution LaunchPad
Document 10.1 Medieval Business: Commenda Contracts (Eleventh–Twelfth Centuries)
Quiz for Document 10.1 LaunchPad
Document 10.2 Sources in Conversation: Sources of the Investiture Conflict: Emperor Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII, Letter and Excommunication (1076)
Document 10.3 Calling the First Crusade: Fulcher of Chartres, Pope Urban II’s Speech at Clermont (1095)
Quiz for Document 10.3 LaunchPad
Document 10.4 Arab Response to the First Crusade: Ibn al-Athir, A Muslim Perspective (1097–1099)
Quiz for Document 10.4 LaunchPad
Document 10.5 The Power of William I: The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (1085–1086) and Domesday Book (1086–1087)
Quiz for Document 10.5 LaunchPad
Document 10.6 Living Close to the Land: Labors of the Month, Zodiac Column, Souvigny Priory, mid twelfth century
Quiz for Document 10.6 LaunchPad
Chapter 11. The Flowering of the Middle Ages, 1150–1215
New Schools and Churches
The New Learning and the Rise of the University
Architectural Style: From Romanesque to Gothic
Governments as Institutions
England: Unity through Common Law
France: Consolidation and Conquest
Germany: The Revived Monarchy of Frederick Barbarossa
Eastern Europe and Byzantium: Fragmenting Realms
The Growth of a Vernacular High Culture
The Troubadours: Poets of Love and Play
The Birth of Epic and Romance Literature
Religious Fervor and Crusade
New Religious Orders in the Cities
Disastrous Crusades to the Holy Land
Victorious Crusades in Europe and on Its Frontiers
Mapping the West: Europe and Byzantium, c. 1215Map Quiz LaunchPad
Chapter 11 Review
Primary Source Analysis: Two Letters from Two Lovers LaunchPad
Contrasting Views: Magna Carta LaunchPad
Terms of History: Gothic LaunchPad
Document 11.1 New Learning: Peter Abelard, The Story of My Misfortunes (c. 1132)
Quiz for Document 11.1 LaunchPad
Document 11.2 Scholarly Pursuits and Youthful Frolics: Royal Decrees of Special Privileges for Students and Student Letters (Twelfth–Early Thirteenth Centuries)
Quiz for Document 11.2 LaunchPad
Document 11.3 Courtly Love: Chrétien de Troyes, Lancelot: The Knight of the Cart (c. 1170s)
Quiz for Document 11.3 LaunchPad
Document 11.4 Early Bankers: Money Changers Window Panel, Chartres Cathedral (early thirteenth century)
Quiz for Document 11.4 LaunchPad
Document 11.5 Franciscan Piety: St. Francis and St. Clare of Assisi, Selected Writings (Thirteenth Century)
Quiz for Document 11.5 LaunchPad
Document 11.6 The Sack of Constantinople: Annals of Niketas Choniates (1204)
Quiz for Document 11.6 LaunchPad
Chapter 12. The Medieval Synthesis—and Its Cracks, 1215–1340
The Church’s Mission
Innocent III and the Fourth Lateran Council
Jews as Outcasts
Reconciling This World and the Next
The Achievements and Failures of Scholasticism
New Syntheses in Writing and Music
The Politics of Control
The Weakening of the Empire
Louis IX and a New Ideal of Kingship
The Birth of Representative Institutions
The Weakening of the Papacy
The Rise of the Signori
The Mongol Takeover
The Great Famine
Mapping the West: Europe, c. 1340
Chapter 12 Review
Primary Source Analysis: Thomas Aquinas Writes about Sex LaunchPad
Contrasting Views: The Mongols: Instruments of God or Cruel Invaders? LaunchPad
Terms of History: Inquisition LaunchPad
Document 12.1 Reconciling Faith and Reason: Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologiae (1273)
Quiz for Document 12.1 LaunchPad
Document 12.2 A Female Mystic: Hadewijch of Brabant, Letters and Poems (1220–1240)
Quiz for Document 12.2 LaunchPad
Document 12.3 Defining Outsiders: Thomas of Monmouth, The Life and Martyrdom of St. William of Norwich (c. 1173)
Quiz for Document 12.3 LaunchPad
Document 12.4 Imagining Hell: Dante Alighieri, Divine Comedy (1313–1321)
Quiz for Document 12.4 LaunchPad
Document 12.5 Sources in Conversation: The New Power of Medieval States: Pope Boniface VIII, Unam Sanctam (1302) and King Philip IV of France, General Assembly of Paris (1303)
Document 12.6 Centering the World: Hereford World Map (c. 1290-1300)
Quiz for Document 12.6 LaunchPad
Chapter 13. Crisis and Renaissance, 1340–1492
Crisis: Disease, War, and Schism
The Black Death, 1347–1352
The Hundred Years’ War, 1337–1453
The Ottoman Conquest of Constantinople, 1453
The Great Schism, 1378–1417
The Renaissance: New Forms of Thought and Expression
New Political Formations in Eastern Europe
Powerful States in Western Europe
Power in the Republics
The Tools of Power
Mapping the West: Europe, c. 1492
Chapter 13 Review
Primary Source Analysis: Wat Tyler’s Rebellion (1381) LaunchPad
Contrasting Views: Joan of Arc: Who Was "the Maid"? LaunchPad
Terms of History: Renaissance LaunchPad
Document 13.1 Demographic Catastrophe: The Black Death (Fourteenth Century)
Quiz for Document 13.1 LaunchPad
Document 13.2 Crisis and Change: Jean Froissart on the Jacquerie (1358)
Quiz for Document 13.2 LaunchPad
Document 13.3 Satirizing the Church: Geoffrey Chaucer, The Pardoner’s Prologue (1387–1400)
Quiz for Document 13.3 LaunchPad
Document 13.4 Preaching Reform: Jan Hus, Letters (1408–1415)
Quiz for Document 13.4 LaunchPad
Document 13.5 Extolling Humanism: Giovanni Rucellai and Leonardo Bruni, Florence in the Quattrocento (1427 and 1457)
Quiz for Document 13.5 LaunchPad
Document 13.6 Women’s Place in Renaissance Italy: Alessandra, Letters from a Widow and Matriarch of a Great Family (1450–1465)
Quiz for Document 13.6 LaunchPad
Document 13.7 Sources in Conversation: Artistic Innovation: Jan van Eyck, Arnolfini Double Portrait (1434) and Bartolommeo Fazio, On Famous Men (1456)
Chapter 14. Global Encounters and the Shock of the Reformation, 1492–1560
The Discovery of New Worlds
The Voyages of Columbus
A New Era in Slavery
Conquering the New World
The Columbian Exchange
The Protestant Reformation
The Invention of Printing
Popular Piety and Christian Humanism
Martin Luther’s Challenge
Protestantism Spreads and Divides
The Contested Church of England
Reshaping Society through Religion
Protestant Challenges to the Social Order
New Forms of Discipline
Striving for Mastery
Courtiers and Princes
Mapping the West: Reformation Europe, c. 1560
Chapter 14 Review
Primary Source Analysis: Columbus Describes His First Voyage (1493) LaunchPad
Contrasting Views: Martin Luther: Holy Man or Heretic? LaunchPad
Terms of History: Protestant Reformation LaunchPad
Document 14.1 Worlds Collide: Bernal Díaz del Castillo, The True History of the Conquest of New Spain (c. 1567)
Quiz for Document 14.1 LaunchPad
Document 14.2 Illustrating a Native Perspective: Lienzo de Tlaxcala (c. 1560)
Quiz for Document 14.2 LaunchPad
Document 14.3 Defending Native Humanity: Bartolomé de Las Casas, In Defense of the Indians (c. 1548–1550)
Quiz for Document 14.3 LaunchPad
Document 14.4 Scripture and Salvation: Martin Luther, Freedom of a Christian (1520)
Quiz for Document 14.4 LaunchPad
Document 14.5 Sources in Conversation: Reforming Christianity: John Calvin, Ordinances for the Regulation of Churches (1547), and Registers of Constitory of Geneva (1542–1543)
Document 14.6 Responding to Reformation: St. Ignatius of Loyola, A New Kind of Catholicism (1546, 1549, 1553)
Quiz for Document 14.6 LaunchPad
Chapter 15: Wars of Religion and the Clash of Worldviews, 1560–1648
Religious Conflicts Threaten State Power, 1560–1618
French Wars of Religion, 1562–1598
Dutch Revolt against Spain
Elizabeth I’s Defense of English Protestantism
The Clash of Faiths and Empires in Eastern Europe
The Thirty Years’ War, 1618–1648
Origins and Course of the War
The Effects of Constant Fighting
The Peace of Westphalia, 1648
Economic Crisis and Realignment
From Growth to Recession
Consequences for Daily Life
The Economic Balance of Power
The Rise of Science and a Scientific Worldview
The Scientific Revolution
The Natural Laws of Politics
The Arts in an Age of Crisis
Magic and Witchcraft
Mapping the West: The Religious Divisions of Europe, c. 1648
Chapter 15 Review
Primary Source Analysis: Sentence Pronounced against Galileo (1633) LaunchPad
Contrasting Views: Political Authority and Religion: What Happened When Subjects Held Different Beliefs? LaunchPad
Terms of History: The Scientific Revolution LaunchPad
Document 15.1 Legislating Tolerance: Henry IV, Edict of Nantes (1598)
Quiz for Document 15.1 LaunchPad
Document 15.2 Barbarians All: Michel de Montaigne, Of Cannibals (1580s)
Quiz for Document 15.2 LaunchPad
Document 15.3 Defending Religious Liberty: Apology of the Bohemian Estates (May 25, 1618)
Quiz for Document 15.3 LaunchPad
Document 15.4 Codifying Poverty: City of Norwich Poor Rolls (1570)
Quiz for Document 15.4 LaunchPad
Document 15.5 The Scientific Challenge: Galileo, Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina (1615)
Quiz for Document 15.5 LaunchPad
Document 15.6 Sources in Conversation: The Persecution of Witches: The Witch of Newbury (1643) and The Trial of Suzanne Gaudry (1652)
Chapter 16. Absolutism, Constitutionalism, and the Search for Order, 1640–1700
Louis XIV: Absolutism and Its Limits
The Fronde, 1648–1653
Court Culture as an Element of Absolutism
Enforcing Religious Orthodoxy
Extending State Authority at Home and Abroad
Constitutionalism in England
England Turned Upside Down, 1642–1660
Restoration and Revolution Again
Social Contract Theory: Hobbes and Locke
Outposts of Constitutionalism
The Dutch Republic
Freedom and Slavery in the New World
Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe
Brandenburg-Prussia: Militaristic Absolutism
An Uneasy Balance: Austrian Habsburgs and Ottoman Turks
Russia: Setting the Foundations of Bureaucratic Absolutism
The Search for Order in Elite and Popular Culture
Freedom and Constraint in the Arts and Sciences
Women and Manners
Reforming Popular Culture
Mapping the West: Europe at the End of the Seventeenth Century
Chapter 16 Review
Primary Source Analysis: Marie de Sévigné, Letter Describing the French Court (1675) LaunchPad
Contrasting Views: The English Civil War LaunchPad
Quiz for Contrasting Views LaunchPad
Terms of History: Absolutism LaunchPad
Quiz for Terms of History LaunchPad
Document 16.1 The Sun King: Louis de Rouvroy, Duke of Saint-Simon, Memoirs (1694–1723)
Quiz for Document 16.1 LaunchPad
Document 16.2 Sources in Conversation: Regime Change: The Trial of Charles I and The Confession of Richard Brandon the Hangman (1649)
Document 16.3 Civil War and Social Contract: Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan (1651)
Quiz for Document 16.3 LaunchPad
Document 16.4 The Consent of the Governed: John Locke, The Second Treatise of Government (1690)
Quiz for Document 16.4 LaunchPad
Document 16.5 Opposing Serfdom: Ludwig Fabritius, The Revolt of Stenka Razin (1670)
Quiz for Document 16.5 LaunchPad
Document 16.6 Genre Painting: Pieter Bruegel the Younger, A Village Kermis (1628)
Quiz for Document 16.6 LaunchPad
Chapter 17. The Atlantic System and Its Consequences, 1700–1750
The Atlantic System and the World Economy
Slavery and the Atlantic System
World Trade and Settlement
The Birth of Consumer Society
New Social and Cultural Patterns
Social Life in the Cities
New Tastes in the Arts
Consolidation of the European State System
A New Power Alignment
British Rise and Dutch Decline
Russia’s Emergence as a European Power
Continuing Dynastic Struggles
The Power of Diplomacy and the Importance of Population
The Birth of the Enlightenment
Popularization of Science and Challenges to Religion
Travel Literature and the Challenge to Custom and Tradition
Raising the Woman Question
Mapping the West: Europe in 1750
Chapter 17 Review
Primary Source Analysis: Montesquieu, Persian Letters: Letter 37 (1721) LaunchPad
Contrasting Views: The Consumer Revolution LaunchPad
Terms of History: Progress LaunchPad
Document 17.1 Captivity and Enslavement: Olaudah Equiano, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano Written by Himself (1789)
Quiz for Document 17.1 LaunchPad
Document 17.2 Sources in Conversation A "Sober and Wholesome Drink": A Brief Description of the Excellent Vertues of That Sober and Wholesome Drink, Called Coffee (1674) and The Coffee House Mob (1710)
Document 17.3 A Domestic Drink: Richard Collins, "A Family at Tea" (c. 1726)
Quiz for Document 17.3 LaunchPad
Document 17.4 Westernizing Russian Culture: Peter I, Decrees and Statutes (1701–1723)
Quiz for Document 17.4 LaunchPad
Document 17.5 Early Enlightenment: Voltaire, Letters concerning the English Nation (1733)
Quiz for Document 17.5 LaunchPad
Document 17.6 Questioning Women’s Submission: Mary Astell, Reflections upon Marriage (1706)
Quiz for Document 17.6 LaunchPad
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