Sixth Edition   ©2019

A Pocket Guide to Public Speaking

Dan O'Hair (University of Kentucky) , Hannah Rubenstein , Rob Stewart (Texas Tech University)

  • ISBN-10: 1-319-10278-6; ISBN-13: 978-1-319-10278-4; Format: Spiral Bound, 336 pages


PART 1: Getting Started

Chapter 1: Becoming a Public Speaker

Gain a Vital Life Skill

Advance Your Professional Goals

Enhance Your Career as a Student

Find New Opportunities for Civic Engagement

The Classical Roots of Public Speaking

Learning to Speak in Public

Draw on Conversational Skills

Draw on Skills in Composition

Develop an Effective Oral Style

Demonstrate Respect for Difference

Public Speaking as a Form of Communication

Public Speaking as an Interactive Communication Process

Chapter 2: From A to Z: Overview of a Speech

Analyze the Audience

Select a Topic

Determine the Speech Purpose

Compose a Thesis Statement

Develop the Main Points

Gather Supporting Materials

Arrange the Speech into Its Major Parts

Outline the Speech

Consider Presentation Aids

Practice Delivering the Speech

Chapter 3: Managing Speech Anxiety

Identify What Makes You Anxious

Lack of Positive Experience

Feeling Different

Being the Center of Attention

Pinpoint the Onset of Anxiety

Pre-Preparation Anxiety

Preparation Anxiety

Pre-Performance Anxiety

Performance Anxiety

Use Proven Strategies to Build Your Confidence

Prepare and Practice

Modify Thoughts and Attitudes

Visualize Success

Activate the Relaxation Response

Briefly Meditate

Use Stress-Control Breathing

Stage One

Stage Two

Use Movement to Minimize Anxiety

Learn from Feedback

Chapter 4: Ethical Public Speaking

Demonstrate Competence and Character

Respect Your Listeners’ Values

Contribute to Positive Public Discourse

Use Your Rights of Free Speech Responsibly

Observe Ethical Ground Rules

Be Trustworthy

Demonstrate Respect

Make Responsible Speech Choices

Demonstrate Fairness

Be Civic-Minded

Avoid Plagiarism

Orally Acknowledge Your Sources

Citing Quotations, Paraphrases, and Summaries

Fair Use, Copyright, and Ethical Speaking

Chapter 5: Listeners and Speakers

Recognize the Centrality of Listening

Recognize That We Listen Selectively

Anticipate Obstacles to Listening

Minimize External and Internal Distractions

Refrain from Multitasking

Guard against Scriptwriting and Defensive Listening

Beware of Laziness and Overconfidence

Work to Overcome Cultural Barriers

Practice Active Listening

Set Listening Goals

Listen for Main Ideas

Strive for the Open and Respectful Exchange of Ideas

Evaluate Evidence and Reasoning

Offer Constructive and Compassionate Feedback

PART 2: Development

Chapter 6: Analyzing the Audience

Adapt to Audience Psychology: Who Are Your Listeners?

"If the Value Fits, Use It"

Gauge Listeners’ Feelings toward the Topic

Gauge Listeners’ Feelings toward You as the Speaker

Gauge Listeners’ Feelings toward the Occasion

Adapt Your Message to Audience Demographics

Age

Ethnic or Cultural Background

Socioeconomic Status

Income

Occupation

Education

Religion

Political Affiliation

Gender and Sexual Orientation

Group Affiliations

Adapt to Diverse Audiences

Adapt to Cross-Cultural Values

Focus on Universal Values

Tools for Learning About Your Audience

Conduct Interviews

Survey the Audience

Consult Published Sources

Analyze the Speech Setting and Context

Chapter 7: Selecting a Topic and Purpose

Explore Topics for Your Speech

Identify Personal Interests

Consider Current Events and Controversial Issues

Survey Grassroots Issues: Engage the Community

Steer Clear of Overused and Trivial Topics

Try Brainstorming to Generate Ideas

Use Internet Tools

Identify the General Purpose of Your Speech

Refine the Topic and Purpose

Narrow Your Topic

Form a Specific Speech Purpose

Compose a Thesis Statement

Example 1

Example 2

From Source to Speech: Narrowing Your Topic to Fit Your Audience

Chapter 8: Developing Supporting Material

Offer Examples

Share Stories

Draw on Testimony

Provide Facts and Statistics

Use Statistics Accurately

Use Frequencies to Indicate Counts

Use Percentages to Express Proportion

Use Types of Averages Accurately

Use Statistics Selectively—and Memorably

Present Statistics Ethically

Chapter 9: Finding Credible Sources in Print and Online

Assess Your Research Needs

Use Library Databases to Access Credible Sources

Recognize Propaganda, Misinformation, and Disinformation

Investigate a Mix of Primary and Secondary Sources

Explore Primary Sources

Consider Personal Knowledge and Experience

Access Government Information

Explore Digital Collections

Access Blogs

Conduct Interviews

Distribute Surveys

Explore Secondary Sources

Wikipedia—Dos and Don’ts

From Source to Speech: Evaluating Web Sources

Chapter 10: Citing Sources in Your Speech

Alert Listeners to Key Source Information

Establish the Source’s Trustworthiness

Qualify the Source

Avoid a Mechanical Delivery

Vary the Wording

Vary the Order

Types of Sources and Sample Oral Citations

Book

Reference Work

Article in a Journal, Newspaper, or Magazine

Website

Blog

Television or Radio Program

Online Video

Testimony (Lay or Expert)

Interview and Other Personal Communication

PART 3: Organization

Chapter 11: Organizing the Body of the Speech

Use Main Points to Make Your Major Claims

Restrict the Number of Main Points

Restrict Each Main Point to a Single Idea

Use the Purpose and Thesis Statements as Guides

Use Supporting Points to Substantiate Your Claims

Pay Close Attention to Coordination and Subordination

Principles of Coordination and Subordination

Strive for a Unified, Coherent, and Balanced Organization

Use Transitions to Give Direction to the Speech

Use Transitions between Speech Points

Use Internal Previews and Summaries as Transitions

From Point to Point: Using Transitions to Guide Your Listeners

Chapter 12: Selecting an Organizational Pattern

Arranging Speech Points Chronologically

Arranging Speech Points Using a Spatial Pattern

Arranging Speech Points Using a Causal (Cause-Effect) Pattern

Arranging Speech Points Using a Problem-Solution Pattern

Arranging Speech Points Topically

Arranging Speech Points Using a Narrative Pattern

Chapter 13: Preparing Outlines for the Speech

Plan on Creating Two Outlines

Use Sentences, Phrases, or Key Words

Use a Key-Word Outline for Optimal Eye Contact

Create a Working Outline First

Sample Working Outline

Prepare a Speaking Outline for Delivery

Sample Speaking Outline

PART 4: Starting, Finishing, and Styling

Chapter 14: Developing the Introduction and Conclusion

Preparing the Introduction

Gain Audience Attention

Use a Quotation

Tell a Story

Establish Common Ground

Offer Unusual Information

Pose Questions

Use Humor—Perhaps

Preview the Topic, Purpose, and Main Points

Establish Credibility as a Speaker

Motivate the Audience to Accept Your Goals

Preparing the Conclusion

Signal the End of the Speech and Provide Closure

Summarize the Key Points

Reiterate the Topic and Speech Purpose

Challenge the Audience to Respond

Make the Conclusion Memorable

Chapter 15: Using Language

Use an Oral Style

Strive for Simplicity

Make Frequent Use of Repetition

Use Personal Pronouns

Choose Concrete Language and Vivid Imagery

Offer Vivid Imagery

Use Figures of Speech

Avoid Clichés, Mixed Metaphors, and Faulty Analogies

Choose Words That Build Credibility

Use Words Appropriately

Use Words Accurately

Use the Active Voice

Use Inclusive, Unbiased Language

Choose Words That Create a Lasting Impression

Use Repetition to Create Rhythm

Use Alliteration for a Poetic Quality

Experiment with Parallelism

PART 5: Delivery

Chapter 16: Methods of Delivery

Keys to Effective Delivery

Select a Method of Delivery

Speaking from Manuscript

Speaking from Memory

Speaking Impromptu

Speaking Extemporaneously

Chapter 17: Your Voice in Delivery

Adjust Your Speaking Volume

Vary Your Intonation

Adjust Your Speaking Rate

Use Strategic Pauses

Strive for Vocal Variety

Carefully Pronounce and Articulate Words

Use Dialect (Language Variation) with Care

Chapter 18: Your Body in Delivery

Pay Attention to Body Language

Animate Your Facial Expressions

Maintain Eye Contact

Use Gestures That Feel Natural

Create a Feeling of Immediacy

Maintain Good Posture

Practice the Delivery

Focus on the Message

Plan Ahead and Practice Often

From Weak to Confident Delivery: Enhancing Your Delivery with Body Language

PART 6: Presentation Aids

Chapter 19: Speaking with Presentation Aids

Select an Appropriate Aid

Props and Models

Pictures

Graphs, Charts, and Tables

Audio, Video, and Multimedia

Options for Showing Presentation Aids

Flip Charts

Chalkboards and Whiteboards

Chapter 20: Designing Presentation Aids

Keep the Design Simple

Use Design Elements Consistently

Select Appropriate Type Styles and Fonts

Use Color Carefully

Consider Subjective Interpretations of Color

Chapter 21: Using Presentation Software

Give a Speech, Not a Slide Show

Develop a Plan

Avoid Technical Glitches

Find Media for Presentations

Avoid Copyright Infringement

From Slide Show to Presentation: Getting Ready to Deliver a PowerPoint, Keynote, or Prezi Presentation

PART 7: Types of Speeches

Chapter 22: Informative Speaking

Use Audience Analysis

Present New and Interesting Information

Look for Ways to Increase Understanding

Subject Matter of Informative Speeches

Decide How to Communicate Your Information

Definition

Description

Demonstration

Explanation

Take Steps to Reduce Confusion

Use Analogies to Build on Prior Knowledge

Appeal to Different Learning Styles

Arrange Points in a Pattern

Sample Informative Speech: Going Carbon Neutral on Campus

Chapter 23: Principles of Persuasive Speaking

Persuasive Speeches Appeal to Human Psychology

Classical Persuasive Appeals: Ethos, Pathos, and Logos

Appeal to Reason

Appeal to Emotion

Appeal to Credibility

Contemporary Persuasive Appeals: Needs and Motivations

Appeal to What Motivates Audience Members

Appeal to Audience Members’ Needs

Encourage Mental Engagement

Demonstrate Speaker Credibility

Stages in Speaker Credibility

Consider Cultural Orientation

Chapter 24: Constructing the Persuasive Speech

Identify the Nature of Your Claims

Use Convincing Evidence

Offer Secondary Sources ("External Evidence")

Offer Speaker Expertise as Evidence

Offer Evidence That Appeals to Audience Needs and Motivations

Select Warrants

Counterarguments: Addressing the Other Side

Avoid Fallacies in Reasoning

Strengthen Your Case with Organization

What Do Your Claims and Evidence Suggest?

What Response Do You Seek?

What is the Audience’s Disposition?

Problem-Solution Pattern of Arrangement

Comparative Advantage Pattern of Arrangement

Monroe’s Motivated Sequence

Step 1: Attention

Step 2: Need

Step 3: Satisfaction

Step 4: Visualization

Step 5: Action

Refutation Pattern of Arrangement

Sample Persuasive Speech: Becoming a Socially Conscious Consumer

Chapter 25: Speaking on Special Occasions

Functions of Special Occasion Speeches

Types of Special Occasion Speeches

Speeches of Introduction

Speeches of Acceptance

Speeches of Presentation

Roasts and Toasts

Eulogies and Other Tributes

After-Dinner Speeches

Speeches of Inspiration

Sample Special Occasion Speech: 2017

University of Southern California Commencement Address by Will Ferrell

PART 8: Online, Group, and Business Contexts

Chapter 26: Preparing Online Presentations

Apply Your Knowledge of Face-to-Face Speaking

Plan for the Unique Demands of Online Delivery

Know the Equipment

Focus on Vocal Variety

Provide Superior Visual Aids

Plan the Delivery Mode

Real-Time Presentations

Recorded Presentations

Choose an Online Presentation Format

Video

Podcasts and Vodcasts

Webinars

Chapter 27: Communicating in Groups

Focus on Goals

Plan on Assuming Dual Roles

Center Disagreements around Issues

Resist Groupthink

Adopt an Effective Leadership Style

Set Goals

Encourage Active Participation

Use Reflective Thinking

Chapter 28: Delivering Group Presentations

Use Group Communication Guidelines

Analyze the Audience and Set Goals

Establish Information Needs

Assign Roles and Tasks

Establish Transitions between Speakers

Consider the Presenters’ Strengths

Coordinate the Presentation Aids

Rehearse the Presentation Several Times

Presenting in Panels, Symposia, and Forums

Panel Discussions

Symposia

Public Forums

Chapter 29: Business and Professional Presentations

Become Familiar with Reports and Proposals

The Sales Proposal

Audience

Organization

The Staff Report

Audience

Organization

The Progress Report

Audience

Organization

PART 9: Speaking in Other College Courses

Chapter 30: Presentations Assigned across the Curriculum

Journal Article Review

The Service Learning Presentation

The Poster Presentation

The Debate

Debate Sides, Resolutions, and Formats

Advance Strong Arguments

The Case Study

Prepare for Different Types of Audiences

Chapter 31: Science and Mathematics Courses

Preparing Effective Presentations in Science and Mathematics

Research Presentation

Process Analysis Presentation

Field Study Presentation

Chapter 32: Technical Courses

Preparing Effective Technical Presentations

Engineering Design Review

Architecture Design Review

Request for Funding

Chapter 33: Social Science Courses

Preparing Effective Presentations in the Social Sciences

Review of the Literature Presentation

Program Evaluation Presentation

Policy Proposal Presentation

Chapter 34: Arts and Humanities Courses

Preparing Effective Arts and Humanities Presentations

Presentations of Interpretation and Analysis

Presentations That Compare and Contrast

Debates

Chapter 35: Education Courses

Preparing Effective Education Presentations

Delivering a Lecture

Facilitating a Group Activity

Facilitating a Classroom Discussion

Chapter 36: Nursing and Allied Health Courses

Preparing Effective Presentations in Nursing and Allied Health Courses

Evidence-Based Practice Presentation

Clinical Case Study Presentation

Quality Improvement Proposal

Treatment Plan Report

Appendices

Appendix A: Citation Guidelines

Chicago Documentation

APA Documentation

MLA Documentation

CSE Documentation

IEEE Documentation

Appendix B: Question-and-Answer Sessions

Protocol during the Session

Handling Hostile and Otherwise Troubling Questions

Ending the Session

Appendix C: Preparing for TV and Radio Communication

Speaking on Television

Eye Contact, Body Movements, and Voice

Dress and Makeup

Speaking on Radio: The Media Interview

Appendix D: Tips for Non-Native Speakers of English

Think Positively

Consider Your Context and Audience

Capitalize on Your Language Uniqueness

Practice, Practice, Practice

Focus on Your Pronunciation

Final Suggestions

Glossary

Index