(late of Prince George's Community College)
Author Talk: Nancy Sommers
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Writing Papers in APA Style1. Writing college papers in APA style
1a. Research paper: Literature review1b. Research paper: Original empirical research1c. Laboratory report1d. Analytical essay1e. Annotated bibliography1f. Administrative report1g. Case study1h. Clinical paper1i. Professional memo1j. Reflective essay1k. Social issue paper
2. Understanding APA conventions
2a. Privileging current sources2b. Using appropriate tone and language2c. Avoiding stereotypes, bias, and offensive language2d. Understanding intellectual property2e. Collecting and reporting data2f. Protecting research participants
3. Posing questions to start a paper
3a. Choosing a narrow question3b. Choosing a challenging question3c. Choosing a grounded question
4. Finding appropriate sources
4a. Locating reference works4b. Locating articles4c. Locating books4d. Locating other sources online
5. Evaluating sources
5a. Selecting sources5b. Reading with an open mind and a critical eye5c. Assessing Web sources with special care
6. Managing information; avoiding plagiarism
6a. Maintaining a working bibliography6b. Keeping track of source materials6c. Avoiding unintentional plagiarism as you take notes
7. Supporting a thesis
7a. Forming a working thesis7b. Testing your thesis7c. Organizing your ideas7d. Using sources to inform and support your argument
8. Avoiding plagiarism
8a. Citing quotations and borrowed ideas8b. Enclosing borrowed language in quotation marks8c. Putting summaries and paraphrases in your own words8d. Avoiding self-plagiarism
9. Integrating sources
9a. Using quotations appropriately9b. Using signal phrases to integrate sources9c. Synthesizing sources
Formatting Papers in APA Style10. Parts of a paper in APA style
10a. Title page10b. Abstract10c. Introduction10d. Method10e. Results10f. Discussion10g. References10h. Footnotes10i. Headings10j. Appendices10k. Visuals
11. APA paper format
11a. Formatting the paper11b. Preparing the list of references
12. Sample pages from papers in APA style
12a. Research paper: Literature review (education)12b. Research paper: Empirical research (psychology)12c. Analytical essay (sociology)12d. Annotated bibliography (economics)12e. Laboratory report (psychology)12f. Administrative report (criminology/criminal justice)12g. Clinical practice paper (nursing)12h. Reflective essay (education)12i. Business report12j. Professional memo (business)12k. Social issue paper (composition)
Documenting Sources in APA Style13. APA in-text citations14. APA list of references
14a. General guidelines for listing authors14b. Articles and other short works14c. Books and other long works14d. Web sites and parts of Web sites14e. Audio, visual, and multimedia sources14f. Personal communication and social media
15. APA notes
15a. Footnotes in the text15b. Notes in tables and figures
Clarity16. Tighten wordy sentences.
16a. Redundancies16b. Empty or inflated phrases16c. Needlessly complex structures
17. Prefer active verbs.
17a. When to replace be verbs17b. When to replace passive verbs
18. Balance parallel ideas.
18a. Items in a series18b. Paired ideas
19. Add needed words.
19a. Words in compound structures19b. The word that19c. Words in comparisons
20. Eliminate confusing shifts.20a. Shifts in point of view20b. Shifts in tense
21. Untangle mixed constructions.
21a. Mixed grammar21b. Illogical connections21c. Is when, is where, and reason . . . is because constructions
22. Repair misplaced and dangling modifiers.
22a. Misplaced words22b. Misplaced phrases and clauses22c. Dangling modifiers22d. Split infinitives23. Provide sentence variety. 23a. Combining choppy sentences 23b. Varying sentence openings24. Find an appropriate voice. 24a. Jargon 24b. Clichés 24c. Slang 24d. Sexist language
Grammar25. Make subjects and verbs agree.
25a. Words between subject and verb25b. Subjects joined with and25c. Subjects joined with or or nor25d. Indefinite pronouns such as someone25e. Collective nouns such as jury25f. Subject after verb25g. Who, which, and that25h. Plural form, singular meaning25i. Titles, company names, and words mentioned as words
26. Be alert to other problems with verbs.
26a. Irregular verbs26b. Tense26c. Mood
27. Use pronouns with care.
27a. Pronoun-antecedent agreement27b. Pronoun reference27c. Case of personal pronouns (I vs. me etc.)27d. Who vs. whom
28. Use adjectives and adverbs appropriately.
28a. Adjectives28b. Adverbs28c. Comparatives and superlatives
29. Repair sentence fragments.
29a. Fragmented clauses29b. Fragmented phrases29c. Acceptable fragments
30. Revise run-on sentences.
30a. Revision with a comma and a coordinating conjunction30b. Revision with a semicolon (or a colon or a dash)30c. Revision by separating sentences30d. Revision by restructuring the sentence
31. Consider grammar topics for multilingual writers.
31a. Verbs31b. Articles (a, an, the)31c. Sentence structure31d. Prepositions showing time and place
Punctuation32. The comma
32a. Before a coordinating conjunction joining independent clauses32b. After an introductory word group32c. Between items in a series32d. Between coordinate adjectives32e. To set off a nonrestrictive element, but not a restrictive element32f. To set off transitional and parenthetical expressions, absolute phrases, and contrasted elements32g. To set off nouns of direct address, the words yes and no, interrogative tags, and mild interjections32h. To set off direct quotations introduced with expression such as he argued32i. With dates, addresses, and titles32j. Misuses of the comma
33. The semicolon and the colon
33a. The semicolon33b. The colon
34. The apostrophe
34a. To indicate possession34b. To mark contractions34c. Conventional uses34d. Misuses of the apostrophe
35. Quotation marks
35a. To enclose direct quotations35b. Around titles of short works35c. Other punctuation with quotation marks35d. Misuses of quotation marks
36. Other marks
36a. The period36b. The question mark36c. The exclamation point36d. The dash36e. Parentheses36f. Brackets36g. The ellipsis mark36h. The slash
37a. Proper vs. common nouns37b. Titles with proper names37c. Titles of works37d. Special terms37e. First word of a sentence or quoted sentence37f. First word following a colon37g. Abbreviations
38a. Before and after a name38b. Organizations, companies, countries38c. Units of measurement and time38d. Latin abbreviations38e. Plural of abbreviations38f. Other uses of abbreviations38g. Inappropriate abbreviations
39a. Using numerals39b. Using words for numbers
40a. Titles of works40b. Words as words and other uses40c. Ships, aircraft, spacecraft40d. Foreign words
41a. Major spelling rules41b. Spelling variations
42a. Compound words42b. Words functioning together as an adjective42c. Suffixes and prefixes42d. Hyphenation at ends of lines
GlossariesGlossary of usageGlossary of grammatical terms
IndexDocumentation directoriesCharts and lists for quick referenceList of sample pages from student papersRevision symbols
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