Twelfth Edition   ©2018

Technical Communication

Mike Markel (Boise State University) , Stuart A. Selber (Pennsylvania State University)

  • ISBN-10: 1-319-05861-2; ISBN-13: 978-1-319-05861-6; Format: Paper Text, 784 pages


Preface for Instructors

Introduction for Writers

Part 1 Understanding the Technical Communication Environment

1 Introduction to Technical Communication

What Is Technical Communication?

         * Understanding Purpose

         * Understanding Audience

*Why Technical Communication Skills Are Important in Your Career

The Challenges of Producing Technical Communication

         * Audience-Related Factors

         * Purpose-Related Factors

         * Setting-Related Factors

         * Document-Related Factors

         * Process-Related Factors

Characteristics of a Technical Document

         * GUIDELINES: Measure of Excellence in Technical Documents

         * DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTIVITY: Analyzing a Technical Document 

Skills and Qualities Shared by Successful Workplace Communicators

         * GUIDELINES: Communicating Professionally


CASE 1: Using the Measures of Excellence in Evaluating a Résumé [in LaunchPad]

2 Understanding Ethical and Legal Considerations

A Brief Introduction to Ethics

Your Ethical Obligations

         Obligations to Your Employer

         Obligations to the Public

         Obligations to the Environment

Your Legal Obligations

Copyright Law

         GUIDELINES: Determing Fair Use

         GUIDELINES: Dealing with Copyright Questions

         ETHICS NOTES: Distinguishing Plagiarism from Acceptable Reuse of InformationTrademark Law

         GUIDELINES: Protecting Trademarks

Contract Law

Liability Law

         GUIDELINES: Abiding by Liability Laws

The Role of Corporate Culture in Ethical and Legal Conduct

Understanding Ethical and Legal Issues Related to Social Media

         GUIDELINES: Using Social Media Ethically and Legally

         DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTVITIY: Presenting Guidelines for Social Media

Communicating Ethically Across Cultures

         Communicating with Culutres with Different Beliefs

         Communicating in Countries with Different Laws

Principles for Ethical Communication

         Abide by Relevant Laws

         *Comply iwth Accesibility Standards

         Abide by the Appropriate Professional Code of Conduct

         Abide by Your Organization's Policy on Social Media        

         Tell the Truth

         Don't Mislead Your Readers

         Use Design to Highlight Important Ethical and Legal Information

         Be Clear

         Avoid Discriminatory Language

         Acknowledge Assistance from Others



         CASE 2: The The Ethics of Requiring Students To Subsidize a Plagiarism-Detection Service [in LaunchPad]

3 Writing Technical Documents


         *Considering Your Writing Situation

         TUTORIAL: Cross-Platform Word Processing with CloudOn, Quip, and More [in LaunchPad]

         Generating Ideas About Your Subject

         Researching Additional Information

         Devising a Schedule and a Budget


         Organizing and Outlining Your Document

         Using Templates

         GUIDELINES: Drafting Effectively

         DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTIVITY: Identifying the Strengths and Weaknesses of a Commercial          Template

Using Styles

         *TECH TIP: Why and How To Use the Styles Group

         TUTORIAL: Creating Styles and Templates [in LaunchPad]


         Studying the Draft by Yourself

         *GUIDELINES: Revising Your Draft

         Seeking Help from Others

         ETHICS NOTE: Acknowledge Reviewers Responsibly


         *GUIDELINES: Editing Your Draft        




         CASE 3: Understanding Why Revision Software Cannot Revise and Edit Your Document [in LaunchPad]        

4 Writing Collaboratively

Advantages and Disadvantages of Collaboration

         Advantages of Collaboration

         Disadvantages of Collaboration

Managing Projects

         GUIDELINE: Managing Your Project        

Conducting Meetings

         Tutorial: Scheduling Meetings Online [in LaunchPad]

         Listen Effectively

         GUIDELINES: Listening Effectively

Setting Your Team's Agenda        

GUIDELINES: Setting Your Team's Agenda

ETHICS NOTE: Pulling Your Weight on Collaborative Projects

DOWNLOADABLE FORM: Work-Schedule Form [in LaunchPad]

DOWNLOADABLE FORM: Team-Member Evaluation Form

DOWNLOADABLE FORM: Self-Evaluation Form

Conducting Efficient Meetings

Communication Diplomatically

Critiquing a Team Member's Work

GUIDELINES: Communicating Diplomatically

GUIDELINES: Critiquing a Colleague's Work 

Using Social Media and Other Electronic Tools in Collaboration

         *TECH TIP: Why and How To Use Reviewing Tools

Word-Processing Tools

TUTORIAL: Reviewing Collaborative Documents [in LaunchPad]

TUTORIAL: Incorporating Tracked Changes [in LaunchPad]

Messaging Technologies

         DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTIVITY: Critiquing a Draft Clearly and Diplomatically


TUTORIAL: Conducting Online Meetings [in LaunchPad]

GUIDELINES: Participating in a Videoconference

Wikis and Shared Document Workspaces

TUTORIAL: Using Wikis for Collaborative Work [in LaunchPad]

TUTORIAL: Using Collaborative Software [in LaunchPad]

Virtual Worlds

         ETHICS NOTE: Maintaining a Professional Presence Online

Gender and Collaboration

Culture and Collaboration



         LEARNINGCURVE: Part 1: Understanding the Technical Communication Environment (Chs. 1-4)

         CASE 4: Accomodating a Team Member's Scheduling Problems [in LaunchPad]        

Part 2 Planning the Document

5 Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose

Understanding Audience and Purpose

Using an Audience Profile Sheet

         DOWNLOADABLE FORM: Audience Profile Sheet [in LaunchPad]

Determining the Important Characteristics of Your Audience

Who Are Your Readers?

Why Is Your Audience Reading Your Document?

What Are Your Readers’ Attitudes and Expectations?

How Will Your Readers Use Your Document?

Techniques for Learning About Your Audience

         Determining What You Already Know About Your Audience

         Interviewing People

         Reading About Your Audience Online

         Searching Social Media for Documents Your Audience Has Written

         Analyzing Social-Media Data

Communicating Across Cultures

         Understanding the Cultural Variables "on the Surface"

         Understanding the Cultural Variables "Beneath the Surface"

         Considering Cultural Variables as You Write

         GUIDELINES: Writing for Readers from Other Cultures

         DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTIVITY: Examining Cultural Variables in a Business Letter

         Using Graphics and Design for Multicultural Readers

Applying What You Have Learned About Your Audience

         ETHICS NOTE: Meeting Your Readers' Needs Responsibily

Writing for Multiple Audiences 0

Determining Your Purpose

Gaining Management’s Approval

Revising Information for a New Audience and Purpose



         CASE 5: Focusing on an Audience's Needs and Interests [in LaunchPad]

6 Researching Your Subject

Understanding the Research Process

Choosing Appropriate Research Methods

         *GUIDELINES: Planning for the Research Process

         GUIDELINES: Researching a TopicConducting Secondary Research

*Understanding Research Tools

*Types of Secondary Research Sources

Using Social Media and Other Interactive Resources

         *TECH TIP: Why and How to Use Social Media in Reserch

         TUTORIAL: Tracking Sources with Evernote and Zotero [in LaunchPad]

Evaluating the Information

GUIDELINES: Evaluating Print and Online Sources

Conducting Primary Research

         Analysis of Social-Media Data

         *DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTIVITY: Evaluating Information from Internet Sources

         Observations and Demonstrations



         Field Research


         GUIDELINES: Conducting an Interview



         ETHICS NOTE: Reporting and Analyzing Data Honestly



         CASE 6: Revising a Questionnaire [in LaunchPad]

7 Organizing Your Information

Understanding Three Principles for Organizing Technical Information

         Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose

         Using Conventional Patterns of Organization

         Displaying Your Organizational Pattern Prominently

Understanding Conventional Organizational Patterns


                  GUIDELINES: Organizing Information Chronologically


                  GUIDELINES: Organizing Information Spatially

         General to Specific

                  GUIDELINES: Organizing Information from General to Specific

         More Important to Less Important

                  GUIDELINES: Organizing Information from More Important to Less Important

         Comparison and Contrast

                  GUIDELINES: Organizing Information by Comparison and Contrast

                  ETHICS NOTE: Comparing and Contrasting Fairly

         Classification or Partition

                  GUIDELINES: Organizing Information by Classification or Partition


                  GUIDELINES: Organizing Information by Problem-Methods-Solution

         Cause and Effect

                  GUIDELINES: Organizing Information by Cause and Effect

                  DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTIVITY: Using Multiple Organizational Patterns in an Infographic



         LEARNINGCURVE: Part 2: Planning the Document (Chs. 5-7) [in LaunchPad]

         CASE 7: Organizing a Document for Clarity—and Diplomacy [in LaunchPad]

Part 3 Developing and Testing the Verbal and Visual Information

8 Communicating Persuasively

Considering the Context of Your Argument

         Understanding Your Audience’s Broader Goals

         Working Within Constraints

Crafting a Persuasive Argument

         Identifying the Elements of Your Argument

         Considering Opposing Viewpoints

         Using the Right Kinds of Evidence

         *Using Visuals as Persuasive Elements

                  ETHICS NOTE: Using Digital Enhancement Tools Responsibly

         Appealing to Emotions Responsibly

         Deciding Where to Present the Claim

                  DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTIVITY: Analyzing Evidence in an Argument

         Understanding the Role of Culture in PersuasionAvoiding Logical Fallacies

Presenting Yourself Effectively

         GUIDELINES: Creating a Professional Persona

                  ETHICS NOTE: Seeming Honest Versus Being Honest in Persuasive Writing



         CASE 8: Analyzing the Persuasiveness of a Technical Document [in LaunchPad]

9 Emphasizing Important Information

Writing Clear, Informative Titles

Writing Clear, Informative Headings

         GUIDELINES: Revising Headings

Writing Clear, Informative Lists

         Write Effective Paragraph Lists

         Write Effective Sentence Lists

                  GUIDELINES: Creating Effective Lists

Writing Clear, Informative Paragraphs

         Structure Paragraphs Clearly

                  ETHICS NOTE: Avoiding Burying Bad News in Paragraphs

                  GUIDELINES: Dividing Long Paragraphs

         Use Coherence Devices Within and Between Paragraphs

                  DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTIVITY: Identifying the Elements of a Coherent Paragraph



         CASE 9: Emphasizing Important Information in a Technical Description [in LaunchPad]

10 Writing Correct and Effective Sentences

Writing Grammatically Correct Sentences

         Avoid Sentence Fragments

         Avoid Comma Splices

         Avoid Run-on Sentences

         Avoid Ambiguous Pronoun References

     &n References

         Compare Items Clearly

         Use Adjectives Clearly

         Maintain Subject-Verb Agreement

         Maintain Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement

         Use Tenses Correctly

         Structuring Effective Sentences

         Emphasize New and Important Information

         Choose an Appropriate Sentence Length

         Focus on the "Real" Subject

         Focus on the "Real" Verb

         Use Parallel Structure

         Use Modifiers Effectively

Choosing the Right Words and Phrases

         Select an Appropriate Level of Formality

         Be Clear and Specific

                  ETHICS NOTE: Euphemisms and Truth Telling

         Be Concise

                  DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTIVITY: Revising for Conciseness and Simplicity

         Use Inoffensive Language

                  GUIDELINES: Avoiding Sexist Language

                  *TECH TIP: Why and How to Customize Grammar Checker Features

                  GUIDELINES: Using the People-First Approach

Understanding Simplified English for Nonnative Speakers

Preparing Text for Translation



         LEARNINGCURVE: Persuasion, Emphasis, and Effective Sentences (Chs. 8-10) [in LaunchPad]

         CASE 10: Revising a Document for Nonnative Speakers and for Translation [in LaunchPad]

11 Designing Print and Online Documents

Goals of Document Design

Understanding Design Principles

         TUTORIAL: Proofreading for Format Consistency [in LaunchPad]

Planning Your Design

         Analyze Your Audience and Purpose

         Determine Your Resources

Designing Print Documents




         Navigational Aids

                  *TECH TIP: Why and How To Set Up Pages

Designing Print Pages

GUIDELINES: Understanding Learning Theory and Page Design

Page Layout


         *TECH TIP: Why and How To Format Columns


         ETHICS NOTE: Using Type Sizes Responsibly

Titles and Headings

Other Design Features

         *TECH TIP: Why and How To Create Borders and Screens

         *TECH TIP: Why and How To Create Text Boxes

         *DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTIVITY: Analyzing Page Designs

Designing Online Documents

Use Design To Emphasize Important Information

Create Informative Headers and Footers

Help Readers Navigate the Document

GUIDELINES: Making Your Documents Easy To Navigate

Include Extra Features Your Readers Might Need

Help Readers Connect with Others

*Consider Matters of Accessibility

*GUIDELINES: Designing Accessible Websites

Design for Multicultural Audiences

ETHICS NOTE: Designing Legal and Honest Online Documents

Designing Online Pages

Aim for Simplicity

GUIDELINES: Designing a Simple Site

Make the Text Easy To Read and Understand

GUIDELINES: Designing Easy-To-Read Text

Create Clear, Informative Links

GUIDELINES: Writing Clear, Informative Links



CASE 11: Designing a Flyer [in LaunchPad]

12 Creating Graphics

The Functions of Graphics

The Characteristics of an Effective Graphic

ETHICS NOTE: Creating Honest Graphics

GUIDELINES: Integrating Graphics and Text

Understanding the Process of Creating Graphics

Planning Graphics

Producing Graphics

*TECH TIP: Why and How To Insert and Modify Graphics

Revising Graphics

Citing Sources of Graphics

Using Color Effectively

Choosing the Appropriate Kind of Graphic

Illustrating Numerical Information

GUIDELINES: Creating Effective Tables

*TECH TIP: Why and How To Create Tables, Charts, and Other Graphics

GUIDELINES: Creating Effective Bar Graphs

GUIDELINES: Creating Effective Infographics

GUIDELINES: Creating Effective Line Graphs

GUIDELINES: Creating Effective Pie Charts

Illustrating Logical Relationships


DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTIVITY: Interactive Graphic [in LaunchPad]

Illustrating Process Descriptions and Instructions

Illustrating Visual and Spatial Characteristics

Tutorial: Photo Editing Basics with GIMP [in LaunchPad]

GUIDELINES: Presenting Photographs Effectively

*TECH TIP: Why and How To Create and Insert Screen Shots

Creating Effective Graphics for Multicultural Readers



CASE 12: Creating Appropriate Graphics To Accompany a Report [in LaunchPad]

13 *Evaluating and Testing Technical Documents

*Understanding Usability Studies

*Assessing the Need for a Usability Study

*Determining the Goals of the Study

*Studying Existing Documents vs. Prototypes

*Considering Study Settings

*Conducting Guided Evaluations of Technical Documents

*Choosing Document Evaluators

*Establishing Evaluation Guidelines

*Preparing Materials for the Evaluation

*Testing Documents in a Controlled Setting

*Preparing for the Test

*GUIDELINES: Preparing for a Usability Test

*Conducting the Test

ETHICS NOTE: Understanding the Ethics of Informed Consent

DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTIVITY: Obtaining Informed Consent

*Testing Documents in Context

*Preparing for a Site Visit

*Conducting a Test in Context

*Monitoring Documents Remotely

*Interpreting and Reporting Your Findings



*CASE 13: Evaluating a Technical Document [in LaunchPad]

Part 4 Learning Important Applications

14 Corresponding in Print and Online

Understanding the Process of Writing Correspondence

FOCUS ON PROCESS: Correspondence

Selecting a Type of Correspondence

Presenting Yourself Effectively in Correspondence

Use the Appropriate Level of Formality

Communicate Correctly

Project the "You Attitude"

Avoid Correspondence Clichés

Communicate Honestly

ETHICS NOTE: Writing Honest Business Correspondence

Writing Letters

Elements of a Letter

Common Types of Letters

Writing Memos

GUIDELINES: Organizing a MemoWriting Emails

*TECH TIP: Why and How to Use Email for Business Correspondence

GUIDELINES: Following Netiquette

DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTIVITY: Following Netiquette in an Email Message

Writing Microblogs

GUIDELINES: Representing Your Organization on a MicroblogWriting Correspondence to Multicultural Readers



CASE 14: Setting Up and Maintaining a Professional Online Account [in LaunchPad]

15 Applying for a Job

Understanding the Job-Application Process

FOCUS ON PROCESS: Job-Application MaterialsEstablishing Your Professional Brand

Understanding What Employers Want

GUIDELINES: Building the Foundation of Your Professional Brand

CraftING Your professional Brand

GUIDELINES: Presenting Your Professional Brand

TUTORIAL: Building Your Professional Brand with LinkedIn, Twitter, and More [in LaunchPad]

ETHICS NOTE: Writing Honest Job-Application Materials

Finding the Right Position

Planning the Job Search

Understanding Job-Search Strategies

GUIDELINES: Using LinkedIn’s Employment Features

Writing Résumés

Elements of the Chronological Résumé

GUIDELINES: Elaborating on Your Education

Elements of the Skills Résumé

Preparing a Plain-Text Résumé

GUIDELINES: Formatting a Plain-Text Résumé


DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTIVITY: Blane C. Holden’s Online Portfolio [in LaunchPad]

Writing Job-Application Letters

Writing Job-Application Letters

Preparing for a Job Interview

GUIDELINES: Preparing for a Job Interview

Following Up After an Interview



CASE 15: Identifying the Best-of-the-Best Job-Search Sites [in LaunchPad]

16 Writing Proposals

Understanding the Process of Writing Proposals

FOCUS ON PROCESS: ProposalsThe Logistics of Proposals

Internal and External Proposals

Solicited and Unsolicited Proposals

The "Deliverables" of Proposals

Research Proposals

Goods and Services Proposals

Persuasion and Proposals

Understanding Readers’ Needs

Describing What You Plan to Do

Demonstrating Your Professionalism

GUIDELINES: Demonstrating Your Professionalism in a Proposal

ETHICS NOTE: Writing Honest Proposals

Writing a Proposal

The Structure of the Proposal



GUIDELINES: Introducing a Proposal

Proposed Program

Qualifications and Experience

DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTIVITY: Writing the Proposed Program

DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTIVITY: Marketing Proposal Pre Presentation [in LaunchPad]



*TECH TIP: Why and How To Create a Gantt Chart

Sample Internal Proposal



*CASE 16: Writing the Introduction for a Proposal [in LaunchPad]

17 Writing Informational Reports

Understanding the Process of Writing Informational Reports

Focus On Process: Informational Reports

Writing Directives

DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTIVITY: Writing a Persuasive Directive

DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTIVITY: High Plains Water-Level Monitoring Study [in LaunchPad]

DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTIVITY: "Global Forest Change" Interactive Map [in LaunchPad]

Writing Field Reports

GUIDELINES: Responding to Readers' Questions in a Field Report

Writing Progress and Status Reports

ETHICS NOTE: Reporting Your Progress Honestly

Organizing Progress and Status Reports

Concluding Progress and Status Reports

GUIDELINES: Projecting an Appropriate Tone in a Progress or Status ReportSample Progress Report

Writing Incident Reports

Writing Meeting Minutes



*CASE 17: Writing a Directive [in LaunchPad]

18 Writing Recommendation Reports

Understanding the Role of Recommendation Reports

Focus on Process: Recommendation Reports

Using a Problem-Solving Model for Preparing Recommendation Reports

Identify the Problem or Opportunity

Establish Criteria for Responding to the Problem or Opportunity

Determine the Options

Study Each Option According to the Criteria

Draw Conclusions About Each Option

Formulate Recommendations Based on the Conclusions

ETHICS NOTE: Presenting Honest Recommendations

Writing Recommendation Reports

Writing the Body of the Report

GUIDELINES: Writing Recommendations

Writing the Front Matter

*TECH TIP: Why and How To Format Headers, Footers, and Page Numbers

*TECH TIP: Why and How To Create a Table of Contents

GUIDELINES: Writing an Executive Summary

Writing the Back Matter

DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTIVITY: Analyzing an Executive Summary

DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTIVITY: Recommendations Presented in an Audio Podcast [in LaunchPad]Sample Recommendation Report



CASE 18: Analyzing Decision Matrices [in LaunchPad]

19 Writing Lab Reports

Persuasion and Lab Reports

Understanding the Process of Writing Lab Reports

Understanding the Structure of the Lab Report




GUIDELINES: Writing Equations

Materials and Methods


ETHICS NOTE: Presenting Data Honestly






Understanding the Role of Science and Engineering Articles

DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTIVITY: Evaluating Lab ReportsSample Lab Report



CASE 19: Introducing the Scientific Method Through a Lab Report [in LaunchPad]

20 Writing Definitions, Descriptions, and Instructions

Writing Definitions


Analyzing the Writing Situation for Definitions

Determining the Kind of Definition To Write

GUIDELINES: Writing Effective Sentence Definitions

Deciding Where To Place the Definition

Writing Descriptions

*FOCUS ON PROCESS: Descriptions

Analyzing the Writing Situation for Descriptions

Indicating Clearly the Nature and Scope of the Description

Introducing the Description Clearly

Providing Appropriate Detail

GUIDELINES: Providing Appropriate Detail in Descriptions

Ending the Description with a Brief Conclusion

A Look at Several Sample Descriptions

Writing Instructions

*FOCUS ON PROCESS: Instructions

Understanding the Role of Instructional Videos

Designing a Set of Written Instructions

GUIDELINES: Designing Clear, Attractive Pages

Planning for Safety

ETHICS NOTE: Ensuring Your Readers’ Safety

Drafting Effective Instructions

GUIDELINES: Drafting Introductions for Instructions

GUIDELINES: Drafting Steps in Instructions

Revising, Editing, and Proofreading Instructions

A Look at Several Sample Sets of Instructions

DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTIVITY: Presenting Clear Instructions

DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTIVITY: Mechanism Description Using Interactive Graphics [in LaunchPad]

DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTIVITY: Process Description Using Video Animation [in LaunchPad]

DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTIVITY: Instructions Using Video Demonstration [in LaunchPad]

DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTIVITY: Instructions Using Video Screen Capture [in LaunchPad]

DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTIVITY: Instructions Using a Combination of Video Demonstration and Screen Capture [in LaunchPad]

DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTIVITY: Definition Using Video Animation [in LaunchPad]

Writing Manuals



CASE 20: Choosing a Medium for Presenting Instructions [in LaunchPad]

21 Making Oral Presentations

Understanding the Role of Oral Presentations

FOCUS ON PROCESS: Oral Presentations

Understanding the Process of Preparing and Delivering an Oral Presentation

Preparing the Presentation

Analyzing the Speaking Situation

Organizing and Developing the Presentation

GUIDELINES: Introducing the Presentation

GUIDELINES: Concluding the Presentation

Preparing Presentation Graphics

Tutorial: Creating Presentations with PowerPoint and Prezi [in LaunchPad]

Tutorial: Audio Recording and Editing with Audacity [in LaunchPad]

*TECH TIP: Why and How To Create a Presentation Template

*TECH TIP: Why and How To Set List Items To Appear and Dim During a Presentation

Choosing Effective Language

DOCUMENT ANALYSIS ACTIVITY: Integrating Graphics and Text on a Presentation Slide

GUIDELINES: Using Memorable Language in Oral Presentations

Rehearsing the Presentation

Delivering the Presentation

Calming Your Nerves

GUIDELINES: Releasing Nervous Energy

Using Your Voice Effectively

Using Your Body Effectively

GUIDELINES: Facing an Audience

Answering Questions After a Presentation

ETHICS NOTE: Answering Questions Honestly

Sample Evaluation Form

DOWNLOADABLE FORM: Oral Presentation Evaluation Form [in LaunchPad]



CASE 21: Understanding the Claim-and-Support Structure for Presentation Graphics [in LaunchPad]

APPENDIX Reference Handbook

A Skimming Your Sources and Taking Notes




B Documenting Your Sources

APA Style

IEEE Style

MLA Style

C Editing and Proofreading Your Documents



Proofreading Symbols and Their Meanings

D Guidelines for Multilingual Writers (ESL)

Cultural and Stylistic Communication Issues

Sentence-Level Issues

Selected Bibliography



Index of Selected Features