Thinking through Sources for Ways of the World, Volume 1
Third Edition   ©2016

Thinking through Sources for Ways of the World, Volume 1

Robert W. Strayer , Eric W. Nelson

  • ISBN-10: 1-319-07464-2; ISBN-13: 978-1-319-07464-7; Format: Paper Text, 176 pages

Please note:
Volume 1 includes Chapters 1-12.
Volume 2 includes Chapters 12-23

1. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES

History Before Writing: How Do We Know?

Source 1.1: A Gatherer Hunter Woman in the Twentieth Century: Nisa: The Life and Words of a !Kung Woman

Source 1.2: Lascaux Rock Art

Source 1.3: Female Figurine from Çatalhüyük

Source 1.4: Otzi the Ice Man

Source 1.5: Stonehenge

2. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES

Social Life in the First Civilizations

Source 2.1: Law and Life in Ancient Mesopotamia: The Law Code of Hammurabi, ca. 1750 B.C.E.

Source 2.2: The Standard of Ur: Peace Panel and War Panel

Source 2.3: The Occupations of Old Egypt: Be a Scribe, ca. 2066–1650 B.C.E.

Source 2.4: The Social Relationships of Egyptian Agriculture: Agricultural Scenes from the Tomb of Menna

Source 2.5: Social Life in Ancient China: The Book of Songs, ca. 1046–771 B.C.E.

Source 2.6: Socializing with Ancestors: Bronze Gui 

3. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES

Political Authority in Second-Wave Civilizations

Source 3.1: Behistun Inscription c. 500 BCE

Source 3.2: In Praise of Athenian Democracy: Pericles: Funeral Oration, 431–430 B.C.E.

Source 3.3: Statue of Augustus

Source 3.4: Governing a Chinese Empire

Source 3.5: Qin Shihuangdi Funerary Complex

Source 3.6: Governing an Indian Empire: The Writings of Master Han Fei, Third Century B.C.E. 

4. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES

The "Good Life" in Asian Cultural Traditions

Source 4.1: Reflections from Confucius: Confucius: The Analects, ca. 479–221 B.C.E.

Source 4.2: Filial Piety Illustrated

Source 4.3: A Daoist Perspective on the Good Life: Loozi: Daodejing, 500 B.C.E.

Source 4.4: Reflections from the Hindu Scriptures: Bhagavad Gita, ca. Fifth to Second Century B.C.E.

Source 4.5: Reflections from Jesus: The Gospel of Matthew, ca. 70–100 C.E.

Source 4.6: Toward "Mature Manhood": Ladder of Divine Ascent 

5. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES

Patriarchy and Women’s Voices

Source 5.1: A Greek Expression of Patriarchy: Aristotle: "On a Good Wife," ca. 330 B.C.E.

Source 5.2: An Indian Expression of Patriarchy: The Laws of Manu, 200–400 C.E.

Source 5.3: A Chinese Woman’s Instructions to Her Daughters: Ban Zhoo: Lessons for Women, Late First Century C.E.

Source 5.4: An Alternative to Patriarchy in India: Psalms of the Sisters, First Century B.C.E.

Source 5.5: Roman Women in Protest: Livy: History of Rome, Early First Century C.E. 

6. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES

Art and the Maya Elite

Source 6.1: Shield Jaguar and Lady Xok, A Royal Couple of Yaxchilan

Source 6.2: The Presentation of Captives

Source 6.3: A Bloodletting Ritual

Source 6.4: The Ball Game

Source 6.5: A Maya Ruler Relaxing 

7. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES

Life and Travel on the Silk Roads

Source 7.1: Dangers and Assistance on the Silk Roads: Silk Road Merchants Encounter Bandits

Source 7.2: Advice for Merchants: Francesco Pegolotti: Advice for European Merchants Traveling to China, ca. 1340

Source 7.3: Stopping at a Caravanserai

Source 7.4: Buddhism on the Silk Roads: Regulations for a Community of Monks, Third Century C.E.; Faxian: A Record of the Buddhist Kingdoms, ca. 416

Source 7.5: Christianity on the Silk Roads: The Jesus Sutras, 635–1005

Source 7.6: Letters from the Silk Road: From a Soldier on Guard Duty, 103 B.C.E–40 C.E.; From an Abandoned Wife, Early Fourth Century C.E. 

8. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES

The Making of Japanese Civilization

Source 8.1: Japanese Political Ideals: Shotoku: The Seventeen Article Constitution, 604

Source 8.2: The Uniqueness of Japan: Kitabatake Chikafusa: The Chronicle of the Direct Descent of Gods and Sovereigns, 1339

Source 8.3: Social Life at Court: Sei Shonagon: Pillow Book, ca. 1000

Source 8.4: Japanese Zen Buddhism: Su Dongpo in Straw Hat and Wooden Shoes

Source 8.5: The Way of the Warrior: Shiba Yoshimasa: Advice to Young Samurai, ca. 1400: Imagawa Ryoshun: The Imagawa Letter, 1412

Source 8.6: Samurai and the "Arts of Peace" 

9. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES

Voices of Islam

Source 9.1: The Voice of Allah: The Quran, Seventh Century C.E.

Source 9.2: The Voice of the Prophet Muhammad: The Hadiths, Eighth and Ninth Centuries

Source 9.3: The Voice of the Law: The Sharia, Ninth Century

Source 9.4: The Voice of the Sufis: Inscription in Rumi’s Tomb, Thirteenth Century; Rumi: Poem, Thirteenth Century; Rumi: Mathnawi, Thirteenth Century

Source 9.5: Islamic Practice in West Africa: Ibn Battuta: Travels in Asia and Africa, 1354

Source 9.6: Men and Women at Worship 

10. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES

The Crusades as Cultural Encounter

Source 10.1: A Western Christian Perspective: Pope Urban II: Speech at Clermont, 1095

Source 10.2: Jewish Perspectives on the Crusades: An Account of Attacks on Jews during the First Crusade, Early to Mid-Twelfth Century

Source 10.3: Muslim Perspectives on the Crusades: Ibn al-Athir: The Complete History, ca. 1231

Source 10.4: Jerusalem and the Crusades: The Looting of Jerusalem, 1099; How Jerusalem Was Captured by Saladin, 1187

Source 10.5: A Byzantine Perspective on the Crusades: Nicetas Choniates: The Sack of Constantinople, 1204

Source 10.6: More than Conflict: Usmah Ibn Munqidh: Christian Piety and Muslim Piety, Mid-Twelfth Century; Fulcher of Chartres: The Latins in the East, Early Twelfth Century 

11. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES

Living and Dying During the Black Death

Source 11.1: The Black Death in the Islamic World: Ibn al-Wardi: Report of the Pestilence, 1348

Source 11.2: The Black Death in Western Europe: Giovanni Boccaccio: The Decameron, Mid-Fourteenth Century

Source 11.3: The Black Death in Byzantium: Emperor John VI of Byzantium: Historarum, Mid to Late Fourteenth Century

Source 11.4: Religious Responses in the Islamic World: Ibn Kathir: The Beginning and the End: On History, ca. 1350–1351

Source 11.5: Religious Responses in the Christian World: The Flagellants; A Culture of Death

Source 11.6: The Black Death and European Jews: Jacob Von Königshofen: About the Great Plague and the Burning of the Jews, ca. Early Fifteenth Century

Source 11.7: A Government’s Response to the Plague: Ordinances against the Spread of Plague, Pistoia, 1348  

12. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES

Early Encounters; First Impressions

Source 12.1: Cadamosto in a West African Chiefdom: Alvise da Cadamosto: On Meeting with Budomel, 1455

Source 12.2: Vasco da Gama at Calicut, India: A Journal of the First Voyage of Vasco da Gama, 1498

Source 12.3: Celebrating de Gama’s Arrival in Calicut

Source 12.4: Columbus in the Caribbean: Christopher Columbus: Letter to Ferdinand and Isabella, 1493

Source 12.5: Columbus Engraved: Columbus Arriving on Hispaniola 

13. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES

The Spanish and the Aztecs: From Encounter to Conquest (1519-1521)

Source 13.1: The Meeting of Cortés and Moctezuma: A Spanish View: Bernal Díaz: The True History of the Conquest of New Spain, Mid-Sixteenth Century

Source 13.2: The Meeting of Cortés and Moctezuma: An Aztec Account: Fray Bernardino de Sahagún: The Florentine Codex, Mid-Sixteenth Century

Source 13.3: Images of Encounter: Moctezuma and Cortés; The Massacre of the Nobles

Source 13.4: Conquest and Victory: The Fall of Tenochtitlan from a Spanish Perspective: Francisco de Aguilar: Brief Record of the Conquest of New Spain, ca. 1560

Source 13.5: Defeat: The Fall of Tenochtitlan from an Aztec Perspective: Fray Bernardino de Sahagún: The Florentine Codex, Mid-Sixteenth Century

Source 13.6: The Battle of Tenochtitlan

Source 13.7: Lamentation: The Aftermath of Defeat: Cantares Mexicanos, Late Sixteenth Century 

14. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES

Voices from the Slave Trade

Source 14.1: The Journey to Slavery: Olaudah Equiano: The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, 1789

Source 14.2: The Business of the Slave Trade: Thomas Phillips: A Journal of a Voyage Made in the Hannibal of London, 1694

Source 14.3: The Slave Trade and the Kingdom of Kongo: King Affonso I: Letters to King João of Portugal, 1526

Source 14.4: The Slave Trade and the Kingdom of Asante: Osei Bonsu: Conversation with Joseph Dupuis, 1820

Source 14.5: Images of the Slave Trade: Sale of Slaves in West Africa; The Slave Ship Wildfire; Advertisement for a Slave Auction in Charleston, SC

Source 14.6: Data: Patterns of the Slave Trade: Voyages and Slave Rebellion: An Aggregate Statistic; Changing Patterns of the Slave Trade 

15. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES

Renewal and Reform in the Early Modern World

Source 15.1: Luther’s Protest: Martin Luther: Table Talk, Early Sixteenth Century

Source 15.2: Calvinism and Catholicism: Calvinists Destroying Statues in a Catholic Church, 1566

Source 15.3: Progress and Enlightenment: Marquis de Condorcet: Sketch of the Progress of the Human Mind, 1793–1794

Source 15.4: Art and Enlightenment: Joseph Wright, A Philosopher Giving a Lecture on the Orrery

Source 15.5: The Wahhabi Perspective on Islam: Abdullah Wahhab: History and Doctrines of the Wahhabis, 1803

Source 15.6: The Poetry of Kabir: Kabir: Poetry, ca. Late Fifteenth Century

Source 15.7: Religious Syncretism in Indian Art: Kumbhaka 

16. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES

Claiming Rights

Source 16.1: The French Revolution and the "Rights of Man": The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, 1789

Source 16.2: Representing the Declaration: Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (Painting)

Source 16.3: Rights and National Independence: Simón Bolívar: The Jamaica Letter, 1815

Source 16.4: Rights and Slavery: "Reason and Nature": All Mortals Are Equal, It Is Not Birth but Virtue That Makes the Difference

Source 16.5: Rights and Slavery: An African American Voice: Frederick Douglass: What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?, 1852

Source 16.6: The Rights of Women: "Frenchwomen Freed"

Source 16.7: The Rights of Women: An American Feminist Voice: Elizabeth Cady Stanton: The Solitude of Self, 1892 

17. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES

Experiencing the Early Industrial Revolution

Source 17.1: The Experience of an English Factory Worker: Elizabeth Bentley: Factory Worker

Testimony, 1831; William Harter, Mill Owner: Testimony, 1832

Source 17.2: Urban Living Conditions: Friedrich Engels: The Condition of the Working Class in England, 1844

Source 17.3: Another View of Factory Life: Outside the Factory

Source 17.4: A Weaver’s Lament: Only a Weaver, 1860s

Source 17.5: Protest and Song: Eugène Pottier: The Internationale, 1871

Source 17.6: Railroads and the Middle Class: The Railroad as a Symbol of the Industrial Era

Source 17.7: Inequality: Capital and Labour  

18. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES

Colonial India: Experience and Response

Source 18.1: Images of Colonial Rule: A British Breakfast in India; Tiger Hunting in Colonial India; The British and Indian Princes; Blowing from a Gun

Source 18.2: Seeking Western Education: Ram Mohan Roy: Letter to Lord Amherst, 1823

Source 18.3: The Indian Rebellion: Prince Feroze Shah: The Azamgarh Proclamation, 1857

Source 18.4: The Credits and Debits of British Rule in India: Dadabhai Naoroji: Speech to a London Audience, 1871

Source 18.5: Gandhi on Modern Civilization: Mahatma Gandhi: Indian Home Rule, 1909  

19. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES

Japan and the West in the Nineteenth Century

Source 19.1: Continuing Japanese Isolation: An Edict of Expulsion, 1825

Source 19.2: The Debate: Expel the Barbarians: Tokugawa Nariaki: Memorial on the American Demand for a Treaty, 1853

Source 19.3: The Debate: A Sumo Wrestler and a Foreigner

Source 19.4: The Debate: Eastern Ethics and Western Science: Sakuma Shozan: Reflections on My Errors, mid-1850s

Source 19.5: Westernization: Women and Westernization

Source 19.6: A Critique of Westernization: Critique of Wholesale Westernization

Source 19.7: War and Empire

Source 19.8: Japan in the Early Twentieth Century: Okuma Shigenobu: Fifty Years of New Japan, 1907–1908 

20. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES

Experiencing World War I

Sources 20.1: Experiences on the Battlefront: Julian Grenfell: Letter from a British Officer in the Trenches, November 18, 1914; John Nash: Over the Top, 1918: Hugo Mueller: Letter from a German Soldier on the Western Front, 1915; Behari Lal: Letter from a Soldier in the British Indian Army, 1917

Sources 20.2: On the Home Front: Women of Britain Say –– "Go!," 1915; Keep the Home Fires Burning, 1915; Editha von Krell: Recollections of Four Months Working in a German Munitions Factory, 1917; Berlin Police Reports, 1915

Sources 20.3: In the Aftermath of the Great War: Otto Dix: Prague Street, 1920; Erich Maria Remarque: All Quiet on the Western Front, 1929; Nar Diouf: A Senegalese Veteran’s Oral Testimony, 1919 

21. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES

Experiencing Stalinism

Source 21.1: Stalin on Stalinism: Joseph Stalin: The Results of the First Five-Year Plan, 1933

Source 21.2: Collectivization: A Stalinist Vision: The Day of Harvest and Collectivization, 1930

Source 21.3: Living through Collectivization: Anna Akimovna Dubova: "Branded Kulaks and Dispossessed," 1928–1929; Letter from Feigin to Ordzhonikidze, April 9, 1932; Leaving the Collective Farms, 1937

Source 21.4: Industrialization and Religion: A Stalinist Vision: Religion Is the Enemy of Industrialization

Source 21.5: Living through Stalinist Industrialization: Personal Accounts of Soviet Industrialization, 1930s: Letter in a Newspaper from a Tatar Electrician; Newspaper Commentary by an Engineer, 1938; Letter to a Soviet Official from a Worker, 1938; Letter from a Student to His Teacher; Two Comments from Factory Workers Found in Soviet Archives, 1930s; Entry from a Worker’s Diary, 1936; Comment from an Anonymous Communist in Soviet Archives, 1938

Source 21.6: Living through the Stalinist Terror: Irina Kakhovskaya: Arrest and Interrogation, 1937; Eugenia Ginsberg: A Day in Kolyma, 1939; Inna Shikheeva-Gaister: Sending a Parcel, 1938 

22. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES

Articulating Independence

Source 22.1: Declaring Vietnam’s Independence: Declaration of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, September 2, 1945

Source 22.2: Vietnam’s Independence: 50 Years Later: Fiftieth Anniversary of Vietnamese Independence

Source 22.3: India’s "Tryst with Destiny": Jawaharlal Nehru: Independence Day Speech, August 14, 1947

Source 22.4: Another View of India’s Struggle for Independence: Gandhi and the Fight against British Colonialism

Source 22.5: One Africa: Kwame Nkrumah: Africa Must Unite, 1963

Source 22.6: South African "Independence": South African Election

Source 22.7: Independence as Threat: Alvim Pereira: Ten Principles, 1961  

23. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES

The Future as History

Source 23.1: Looking Ahead from 1900: John E. Watkins: "What May Happen in the Next Hundred Years," 1900

Source 23.2: Imagining the Future of Technology: Air Battles and Air Freight in the Future; The Horse as a Curiosity; The School of the Future; A Video-Telephone in the Year 2000

Source 23.3: The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948

Source 23.4: Throwing Off Europe: Frantz Fanon: The Wretched of the Earth, 1961

Source 23.5: Predicting 2100: "The Last Hours"

Source 23.6: "What’s Possible?"

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