Robert W. Strayer
Eric W. Nelson
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Chapter 12: The Worlds of the Fifteenth Century
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Eric Nelson discusses updates to the new edition of Ways of the World.
The Combined Volume includes all chapters. Volume 1 includes Chapters 1-12. Volume 2 includes Chapters 12-23.
NOTE: LaunchPad material that does not appear in the print book – including guided reading exercises, quizzes for sources and features, LearningCurve adaptive quizzes, summative quizzes, all of the documents from the companion reader Thinking through Sources for Ways of the World, and quizzes for each of the documents in the companion reader – has been labeled on this table of contents as shown. Each chapter in LaunchPad also comes with a wealth of additional documents, key terms flashcards, map quizzes, and much more, all of which can be easily integrated and assigned.
PrefaceVersions and SupplementsBrief ContentsContentsMapsFeaturesWorking with EvidencePrologue
PART 1 First Things First: Beginnings in History, to 600 b.c.e.
THE BIG PICTURE Turning Points in Early World History
The Emergence of Humankind
The Globalization of Humankind
The Revolution of Farming and Herding
The Turning Point of Civilization
Time and World History
LANDMARKS IN WORLD HISTORY (to ca. 600 b.c.e.)
1. FIRST PEOPLES; FIRST FARMERS: MOST OF HISTORY IN A SINGLE CHAPTER, TO 3500 B.C.E.
Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad
Out of Africa: First Migrations
Into the Americas
Into the Pacific
The First Human Societies
Economy and the Environment
The Realm of the Spirit
Settling Down: The Great Transition
Breakthroughs to Agriculture
The Globalization of Agriculture
Triumph and Resistance
The Culture of Agriculture
Social Variation in the Age of Agriculture
Agricultural Village Societies
Reflections: The Uses of the Paleolithic
What’s the Significance?
Big Picture Questions
Next Steps: For Further Study
Landmarks for Chapter 1
CONTROVERSIES: Debating the Timescales of History
Quiz for Controversies LaunchPad
ZOOMING IN: Göbekli Tepe: Monumental Construction before Agriculture
Quiz for Zooming In LaunchPad
Summative Quiz LaunchPad
WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: The Australian Dreamtime
Source 1.1 Understanding Creation: Yhi Brings Life to the World, Oral tradition recorded in 20th century
Quiz for Source 1.1 LaunchPad
Source 1.2 The Rainbow Serpent: The Rainbow Serpent Awakens, Oral tradition recorded in 20th century
Quiz for Source 1.2 LaunchPad
Source 1.3 Explaining the World in Aboriginal Rock Art: Namondjok and the Lightning Man
Quiz for Source 1.3 LaunchPad
Source 1.4 Understanding Death: How Death Came: The Purukapali Myth, Oral tradition recorded in 20th century
Quiz for Source 1.4 LaunchPad
Source 1.5 Hunting in Aboriginal Rock Art: Aboriginal Hunters
Quiz for Source 1.5 LaunchPad
HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Australian Aboriginal Culture
Voice 1.1 Dale Kerwin on the Economic and Social Life of Aboriginal Australians, from Aboriginal Dreaming Paths and Trading Routes, 2012
Voice 1.2 Barbara West on Aboriginal Dreamtime Cosmology, from A Brief History of Australia, 2010
Quiz for Historians’ Voices LaunchPad
Documents from Thinking through Sources for Ways of the World LaunchPad
1. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: History Before Writing: How Do We Know?Source 1.1: A Gathering and Hunting Woman in the Twentieth Century: Nisa: The Life and Words of a !Kung Woman: Life in the Bush, 1971
Source 1.2: Paleolithic Rock Art: A Hunting Scene: Lascaux Rock Art, ca. 15000 B.C.E.
Source 1.3: Neolithic Art: A Goddess Figure? Female Figurine from Çatalhüyük, ca. 5000 B.C.E.
Source 1.4: Otzi the Ice Man: Artist’s Reconstruction of Otzi; Otzi the Ice Man’s Preserved Body
Source 1.5: Monumental Stone Construction in the Neolithic Era: Stonehenge, ca. 1600 B.C.E.
Draw Conclusions from the Evidence for Thinking through Sources LaunchPad
Essay Questions for Thinking through Sources LaunchPad
HISTORIANS’ VOICES: The Transition to Agriculture
Voice 1.1: Jared Diamond on the Decision to Farm, 1997
Voice 1.2: Yuval Noah Harari on the Myth of Progress through Agriculture, 2015
2. FIRST CIVILIZATIONS: CITIES, STATES, AND UNEQUAL SOCIETIES, 3500 B.C.E.–600 B.C.E.
Something New: The Emergence of Civilizations
Introducing the First Civilizations
The Question of Origins
An Urban Revolution
The Erosion of Equality
Hierarchies of Class
Hierarchies of Gender
Patriarchy in Practice
The Rise of the State
Coercion and Consent
Writing and Accounting
The Grandeur of Kings
Comparing Mesopotamia and Egypt
Environment and Culture
Cities and States
Interaction and Exchange
Reflections: "Civilization": What’s in a Word?
Landmarks for Chapter 2
ZOOMING IN: Caral, a City of Norte Chico
WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: Indus Valley Civilization
Source 2.1 Cityscape of Mohenjo Daro: Wall Painting of Mohenjo Daro Reconstruction, 20th century
Quiz for Source 2.1 LaunchPad
Source 2.2 A Seal from the Indus Valley: A Humped Cattle Seal from Mohenjo Daro, 19th century b.c.e.
Quiz for Source 2.2 LaunchPad
Source 2.3 Man from Mohenjo Daro: A Royal Priest of Harappa, 3rd millennium b.c.e.
Quiz for Source 2.3 LaunchPad
Source 2.4 Cart and Oxen from Monhenjo Daro: Stone Model of a Cart Pulled by Two Oxen, ca. 2400 b.c.e.
Quiz for Source 2.4 LaunchPad
Source 2.5 Dancing Girl: An Indus Valley Girl, ca. 2500 b.c.e.
Quiz for Source 2.5 LaunchPad
HISTORIANS’ VOICES: The State . . . or Its Absence . . . in the Indus Valley
Voice 2.1 Gregory Possehl on Indus Valley Civilization in Context, from The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective, 2002
Voice 2.2 Jonathan Kenoyer on Political Life in the Indus Valley, from Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization, 1998
2. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: Social Life in the First Civilizations
Source 2.1: Law and Life in Ancient Mesopotamia: The Law Code of Hammurabi, ca. 1750 B.C.E.
Source 2.2: The Standard of Ur: Peace Panel; War Panel, ca. 2500 B.C.E.
Source 2.3: The Occupations of Old Egypt: Be a Scribe, ca. 2066–1650 B.C.E.
Source 2.4: The Social Relationships of Egyptian Agriculture: Agricultural Scenes from the Tomb of Menna, Fourteenth Century B.C.E.
Source 2.5: Social Life in Ancient China: The Book of Songs, ca. 1046–771 B.C.E.
Source 2.6: Socializing with Ancestors: A Ritual Food Container, ca. 1050 B.C.E.
Quiz for Source 2.6 LaunchPad
HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Sumerian Society
Voice 2.1: Lauren Ristvet on Sumerian Specialization, 2007
Voice 2.2: Samuel Kramer on Scribes and Schools, 1956
PART 2 Continuity and Change in the Second-Wave Era, 600 b.c.e.–600 c.e.
THE BIG PICTURE The Globalization of Civilization
LANDMARKS IN WORLD HISTORY (600 b.c.e.–600 c.e.)
3. STATE AND EMPIRE IN EURASIA / NORTH AFRICA, 600 B.C.E.–600 C.E.
Empires and Civilizations in Collision: The Persians and the Greeks
The Persian Empire
Collision: The Greco-Persian Wars
Collision: Alexander and the Hellenistic Era
Comparing Empires: Roman and Chinese
Rome: From City-State to Empire
China: From Warring States to Empire
Consolidating the Roman and Chinese Empires
The Collapse of Empires
Intermittent Empire: The Case of India
Reflections: Enduring Legacies of Second-Wave Empires
Landmarks for Chapter 3
ZOOMING IN: Trung Trac: Resisting the Chinese Empire
WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: Perceptions of Outsiders in the Ancient World
Source 3.1 A Greek Historian on Persia: Herodotus, The Histories, mid-5th century b.c.e.
Quiz for Source 3.1 LaunchPad
Source 3.2 A Greek Goldsmith Depicts the Scythians: Scythian Cup, Crimea, 4th century b.c.e.
Quiz for Source 3.2 LaunchPad
Source 3.3 A Roman Historian on the Germans: Tacitus, Germania, 1st century c.e.
Quiz for Source 3.3 LaunchPad
Source 3.4 A Roman Depiction of Sarmatians: Scene from Trajan’s Column, Rome, 107–113 c.e.
Quiz for Source 3.4 LaunchPad
Source 3.5 A Chinese Historian on the Xiongnu: Sima Qian, Records of the Grand Historian, ca. 100 b.c.e.
Quiz for Source 3.5 LaunchPad
HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Early Sources on Foreign Cultures
Voice 3.1 Stephen Gosch and Peter Stearns on Travelers’ Accounts as Historical Sources, from Premodern Travel in World History, 2008
Voice 3.2 Jerry Bentley on the Idea of "Barbarian," from Old World Encounters: Cross-Cultural Contacts and Exchanges in Pre-Modern Times, 1993
3. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: Political Authority in Second-Wave Civilizations
Source 3.1: The Triumphs of the Persian Emperor Darius: Behistun Inscription: The Sculpture; Opening Lines, ca. 500 B.C.E.
Source 3.2: In Praise of Athenian Democracy: Pericles: Funeral Oration, 431–430 B.C.E.
Source 3.3: Depicting the First Roman Emperor: Augustus Statue; Augustus Statue: The Breastplate, First Century B.C.E.
Source 3.4: Governing a Chinese Empire: The Writings of Master Han Fei, Third Century B.C.E.
Source 3.5: A Chinese Emperor Prepares for his Death: Qin Shihuangdi Funerary Complex; Archer; Bronze Horse-Drawn Cart, Third Century B.C.E.
Source 3.6: Governing an Indian Empire: Ashoka, The Rock Edicts, ca. 268-232 B.C.E.
Quiz for Source 3.6 LaunchPad
HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Emperors in the Second Wave Era
Voice 3.1: Yuri Pines on the Authority and Power of a Chinese Emperor, 2012
Voice 3.2: Kevin McGeough on the First Roman Emperor, 2004
4. CULTURE AND RELIGION IN EURASIA / NORTH AFRICA, 600 B.C.E.–600 C.E.
China and the Search for Order
The Legalist Answer
The Confucian Answer
The Daoist Answer
Cultural Traditions of Classical India
South Asian Religion: From Ritual Sacrifice to Philosophical Speculation
The Buddhist Challenge
Hinduism as a Religion of Duty and Devotion
Toward Monotheism: The Search for God in the Middle East
The Cultural Tradition of Classical Greece: The Search for a Rational Order
The Greek Way of Knowing
The Greek Legacy
The Birth of Christianity . . . with Buddhist Comparisons
The Lives of the Founders
The Spread of New Religions
Institutions, Controversies, and Divisions
Reflections: Religion and Historians
Landmarks for Chapter 4
ZOOMING IN: Perpetua, Christian Martyr
CONTROVERSIES: Debating Religion and the Axial Age
WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: Representations of the Buddha
Source 4.1 A Greco-Indian Buddha: The Temptation of the Buddha
Quiz for Source 4.1 LaunchPad
Source 4.2 A Classical Indian Buddha: An Indian Buddha
Quiz for Source 4.2 LaunchPad
Source 4.3 The Reputation of the Buddha in Ancient Buddhist Stories: The Greater Discourse to Sakuludayin, ca. 1st century b.c.e.
Quiz for Source 4.3 LaunchPad
Source 4.4 A Korean Bodhisattva of Compassion: A Bodhisattva of Compassion: Avalokitesvara with a Thousand Arms
Quiz for Source 4.4 LaunchPad
Source 4.5 The Buddha and the Outcast: Sunita the Outcaste
Quiz for Source 4.5 LaunchPad
Source 4.6 A Chinese Buddha: The Chinese Maitreya Buddha
Quiz for Source 4.6 LaunchPad
HISTORIANS’ VOICES: On the Buddha
Voice 4.1 John Strong on the Context of the Buddha’s Life, from The Buddha: A Short Biography, 2001
Voice 4.2 Karen Armstrong on the Buddha and Biography, from Buddha, 2001
4. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: The "Good Life" in Asian Cultural Traditions
Source 4.1: Reflections from Confucius: Confucius: The Analects, ca. 479–221 B.C.E.
Source 4.2: Filial Piety Illustrated: Children Honoring Parents, ca. 200 B.C.E.
Source 4.3: A Daoist Perspective on the Good Life: Laozi: Daodejing, 500 B.C.E.
Source 4.4: Reflections from the Hindu Scriptures: Bhagavad Gita, ca. Fifth to Second Century B.C.E.
Source 4.5: Reflections from Jesus: The Gospel of Matthew, ca. 70–100 C.E.
Source 4.6: Toward "Mature Manhood": Ladder of Divine Ascent, ca. Sixth or Seventh Century
HISTORIANS’ VOICES: The Historical Jesus
Voice 4.1: Reza Aslan on Jesus as Zealot, 2013
Voice 4.2: Marcus Borg on Jesus as Spirit Person, 1995
5. SOCIETY AND INEQUALITY IN EURASIA / NORTH AFRICA, 600 B.C.E.–600 C.E.
Society and the State in China
An Elite of Officials
The Landlord Class
Class and Caste in India
Caste as Varna
Caste as Jati
The Functions of Caste
Slavery: The Case of the Roman Empire
Slavery and Civilization
The Making of Roman Slavery
A Changing Patriarchy: The Case of China
Contrasting Patriarchies: Athens and Sparta
Reflections: What Changes? What Persists?
Landmarks for Chapter 5
ZOOMING IN: The Spartacus Slave Revolt
WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: Pompeii as a Window on the Roman World
Source 5.1 Terentius Neo and His Wife: An Elite Couple of Pompeii, 1st century c.e.
Quiz for Source 5.1 LaunchPad
Source 5.2 A Pompeii Banquet: A Dinner with Friends, 1st century c.e.
Quiz for Source 5.2 LaunchPad
Source 5.3 From a Pompeii Tavern: An Evening Out at a Pompeii Bar, 1st century c.e.
Quiz for Source 5.3 LaunchPad
Source 5.4 The Graffiti of Pompeii: The Grafitti of Pompeii, 1st century c.e.
Quiz for Source 5.4 LaunchPad
Source 5.5 Household Religion in Pompeii: A Household Shrine from Pompeii, 1st century c.e.
Quiz for Source 5.5 LaunchPad
Source 5.6 Mystery Religion in Pompeii: An Initiation Ritual, 1st century c.e.
Quiz for Source 5.6 LaunchPad
HISTORIANS’ VOICES: On Pompeii
Voice 5.1 Mary Beard on the Artifacts of Pompeii, from "Pompeii Exhibition," 2017
Voice 5.2 Andrew Wilson and Miko Flohr on the Economy of Pompeii, from The Economy of Pompeii, 2017
5. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: Patriarchy and Women’s Voices
Source 5.1: A Greek Expression of Patriarchy: Aristotle: "On a Good Wife," ca. 330 B.C.E.
Source 5.2: Gravestone Image of a Greek Husband and Wife: A Greek Cemetery Sculpture, ca. 400 B.C.E.
Source 5.3: An Indian Expression of Patriarchy: The Laws of Manu, 200–400 C.E.
Source 5.4: A Chinese Woman’s Instructions to Her Daughters: Ban Zhao: Lessons for Women, Late First Century C.E.
Source 5.5: An Alternative to Patriarchy in India: Psalms of the Sisters, First Century B.C.E.
Source 5.6: Roman Women in Protest: Livy: History of Rome, Early First Century C.E.
HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Elite Greek Women in the Public Sphere
Voice 5.1: Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones on the Veil in Ancient Greece, From Aphrodite’s Tortoise: The Veiled Woman of Ancient Greece, 2003
Voice 5.2: Joan Breton Connelly on Priestesses and Public Life in Ancient Greece, From Portrait of a Priestess: Women and Ritual in Ancient Greece, 2007
6. COMMONALITIES AND VARIATIONS: AFRICA, THE AMERICAS, AND PACIFIC OCEANIA, 600 B.C.E.–1200 C.E.
Civilizations of Africa
Meroë: Continuing a Nile Valley Civilization
Axum: The Making of a Christian Kingdom
Along the Niger River: Cities without States
Civilizations of Mesoamerica
The Maya: Writing and Warfare
Teotihuacán: The Americas’ Greatest City
Civilizations of the Andes
Chavín: A Pan-Andean Religious Movement
Moche: A Civilization of the Coast
Wari and Tiwanaku: Empires of the Interior
Alternatives to Civilization
Bantu Africa: Cultural Encounters and Social Variation
North America: Ancestral Pueblo and Mound Builders
Pacific Oceania: Peoples of the Sea
Reflections: Deciding What’s Important: Balance in the Writing of World History
Landmarks for Chapter 6
ZOOMING IN: The Lord of Sipan and the Lady of Cao
WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: Axum and the World
Source 6.1 The Making of an Axumite Empire: Inscription on a Stone Throne, 2nd or 3rd century c.e.
Quiz for Source 6.1 LaunchPad
Source 6.2 The Columns of Axum: An Axumite Monument, late 3rd or early 4th century c.e
Quiz for Source 6.2 LaunchPad
Source 6.3 The Coming of Christianity to Axum: Rufinus, On the Evangelization of Abyssinia, late 4th century c.e.
Quiz for Source 6.3 LaunchPad
Source 6.4 Axum and the Gold Trade: Cosmas, The Gold Trade of Axum, 6th century c.e.
Quiz for Source 6.4 LaunchPad
Source 6.5 Axum Gold Coin: A "Christian Coin" from Axum
Quiz for Source 6.5 LaunchPad
HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Christian Axum
Voice 6.1 Erik Gilbert and Jonathan Reynolds on the Transregional Nature of Early Christianity, from African World History, 2004
Voice 6.2 Christopher Ehret on the Role of Trade in the Coming of Christianity to Axum, from The Civilizations of Africa, 2002
6. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: Art and the Maya Elite
Source 6.1: A Royal Couple from Yaxchilan: Stone Carving of Shield Jaguar and Lady Xok, 724 C.E.
Source 6.2: Mayan Prisoners of War and Their Captors: Mural Depicting the Presentation of Captives, 792 C.E.
Source 6.3: Nourishing the Gods: Stone Carving of a Bloodletting Ritual, 709 C.E.
Source 6.4: Sport as Recreation and Ritual: Vase Painting of a Ball Game, Seventh or Eighth Century
Source 6.5: A Maya Ruler Relaxing: Image of a Maya King at Leisure, Seventh or Eighth Century
HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Comparing the Maya with Other Civilizations
Voice 6.1: Charles C. Mann on Mayan Political Culture, From 1491: New Revelations of the Americas before Columbus, 2011
Voice 6.2: J.R. McNeill and William H. McNeill on Mayan Agriculture, From The Human Web: A Bird’s-Eye View of World History, 2003
PART 3 Civilizations and Encounters during the Third-Wave Era, 600–1450
THE BIG PICTURE Patterns and Processes of the Third-Wave Era
The Ties That Bind: Transregional Interaction in the Third-Wave Era
LANDMARKS IN WORLD HISTORY (600–1450)
7. COMMERCE AND CULTURE, 600–1450
Silk Roads: Exchange across Eurasia
The Growth of the Silk Roads
Goods in T Transit
Cultures in Transit
Disease in Transit
Sea Roads: Exchange across the Indian Ocean
Weaving the Web of an Indian Ocean World
Sea Roads as a Catalyst for Change: Southeast Asia
Sea Roads as a Catalyst for Change: East Africa
Sand Roads: Exchange across the Sahara
Commercial Beginnings in West Africa
Gold, Salt, and Slaves: Trade and Empire in West Africa
An American Network: Commerce and Connection in the Western Hemisphere
Reflections: Economic Globalization — Ancient and Modern
Landmarks for Chapter 7
ZOOMING IN: The Arabian Camel
WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: Travelers’ Tales and Observations
Source 7.1 A Chinese Buddhist in India: Xuanzang, Record of the Western Region, 7th century c.e.
Quiz for Source 7.1 LaunchPad
Source 7.2 A European Christian in China: Marco Polo, The Travels of Marco Polo, 1299
Quiz for Source 7.2 LaunchPad
Source 7.3 A European Artist Depicts Asia: The Marvelous Races of the East, ca. 1410
Quiz for Source 7.3 LaunchPad
Source 7.4 A Moroccan Diplomat in West Africa: Leo Africanus, The History and Description of Africa,
Quiz for Source 7.4 LaunchPad
Source 7.5 A Korean World Map: The Honkoji Copy of the Kangnido Map, Korea, 15th century
Quiz for Source 7.5 LaunchPad
HISTORIANS’ VOICES: On Travel Writers
Voice 7.1 John Larner on Whether Polo Really Traveled to China, from Marco Polo and the Discovery of the World, 1999
Voice 7.2 Natalie Zemon Davis on Leo Africanus’s Audiences, from Trickster Travels: A Sixteenth-Century Muslim between Worlds, 2006
7. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: Life and Travel on the Silk Roads
Source 7.1: Dangers and Assistance on the Silk Roads: Cave Painting of Silk Road Merchants Encountering Bandits, Eighth Century
Source 7.2: Travel on the Silk Roads: Francesco Pegolotti: Advice for European Merchants Traveling to China, ca. 1340
Source 7.3: Stopping at a Caravanserai: Mural Depicting a Caravanserai Site, Sixth Century
Source 7.4: Buddhism on the Silk Roads: Regulations for a Community of Monks, Third Century C.E.; Faxian: A Record of the Buddhist Kingdoms, ca. 416
Source 7.5: Christianity on the Silk Roads: The Jesus Sutras, 635–1005
Source 7.6: Letters from the Silk Road: From a Soldier on Guard Duty, 103 B.C.E–40 C.E.; From an Abandoned Wife, Early Fourth Century C.E.
Quiz for Source 7.6 LaunchPad
HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Assessing the Importance of the Silk Roads
Voice 7.1: Valerie Hansen on the Least Traveled Route, From The Silk Road: A New History, 2012
Voice 7.2: Zinru Liu on the Importance of the Silk Roads, From The Silk Roads: A Brief History with Documents, 2012
8. CHINA AND THE WORLD: EAST ASIAN CONNECTIONS, 600–1300
Together Again: The Reemergence of a Unified China
A "Golden Age" of Chinese Achievement
Women in the Song Dynasty
China and the Northern Nomads: A Chinese World Order in the Making
The Tribute System in Theory
The Tribute System in Practice
Cultural Influence across an Ecological Frontier
Coping with China: Comparing Korea, Vietnam, and Japan
Korea and China
Vietnam and China
Japan and China
China and the Eurasian World Economy
Spillovers: China’s Impact on Eurasia
On the Receiving End: China as Economic Beneficiary
China and Buddhism
Making Buddhism Chinese
Losing State Support: The Crisis of Chinese Buddhism
Reflections: Why Do Things Change?
Landmarks for Chapter 8
ZOOMING IN: Gunpowder
WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: China’s Scholar-Officials
Source 8.1 Scholar-Officials and the Emperor: Scholars Gathering in a Bamboo Garden
Quiz for Source 8.1 LaunchPad
Source 8.2 A Gathering of Scholars: Scholars of the Liuli Hall, late 13th century
Quiz for Source 8.2 LaunchPad
Source 8.3 A Solitary Scholar: Ma Yuan, On a Mountain Path in Spring, early 13th century
Quiz for Source 8.3 LaunchPad
Source 8.4 Tang Dynasty Poetry
Li Po, The Mountain and Me, 8th century
Li Po, Drinking Alone with the Moon, 8th century
Wang Wei, My Retreat at Mount Zhongnan, 8th century
Du Fu, A View of Taishan, 8th century
Quiz for Source 8.4 LaunchPad
Source 8.5 Scholar-Officials at Play: Gu Hongzhong, The Night Revels of Han Xizai, 10th century
Quiz for Source 8.5 LaunchPad
HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Assessing China’s Scholar-Officials
Voice 8.1 Jacques Garnet on the "Learned Culture" of Song Dynasty China, from A History of Chinese Civilization, 1996
Voice 8.2 David Hinton on "Public Service" and "Mountain Seclusion," from Mountain Home: The Wilderness Poetry of Ancient China, 2005
8. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: The Making of Japanese Civilization
Source 8.1: Japanese Political Thinking: Shotoku: The Seventeen Article Constitution, 604 C.E.
Source 8.2: The Uniqueness of Japan: Kitabatake Chikafusa: The Chronicle of the Direct Descent of Gods and Sovereigns, 1339
Source 8.3: Social Life at Court: Sei Shonagon: Pillow Book, ca. 1000
Source 8.4: Japanese Zen Buddhism: Su Dongpo in Straw Hat and Wooden Shoes, Fifteenth Century
Source 8.5: The Way of the Warrior: Shiba Yoshimasa: Advice to Young Samurai, ca. 1400; Imagawa Ryoshun: The Imagawa Letter, 1412
Source 8.6: Samurai and the "Arts of Peace": Kojima Takanori Writing a Poem on a Cherry Tree, Fourteenth Century
Quiz for Source 8.6 LaunchPad
HISTORIANS’ VOICES: China’s Influence in the Making of Japanese Civilization
Voice 8.1: Milton Walter Meyer on China’s Influence on Japan’s First Imperial State, From Japan: A Concise History, 2009
Voice 8.2: Matthew Stavros on China’s Influence on the Capital City of Kyoto, From Kyoto: an urban history of Japan’s premodern capital, 2014
9. THE WORLDS OF ISLAM: AFRO-EURASIAN CONNECTIONS, 600–1450
The Birth of a New Religion
The Homeland of Islam
The Messenger and the Message
The Transformation of Arabia
The Making of an Arab Empire
War, Conquest, and Tolerance
Divisions and Controversies
Women and Men in Early Islam
Islam and Cultural Encounter: A Four-Way Comparison
The Case of India
The Case of Anatolia
The Case of West Africa
The Case of Spain
The World of Islam as a New Civilization
Networks of Faith
Networks of Exchange
Reflections: Past and Present: Choosing Our History
Landmarks for Chapter 9
ZOOMING IN: Mullah Nasruddin, the Wise Fool of Islam
WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: The Islamic World in the Seventh Century
Source 9.1 Muhammad and the Angel Gabriel: Muhammad and the Archangel Gabriel, ca. 1307
Quiz for Source 9.1 LaunchPad
Source 9.2 Muhammad in Jerusalem: Aqa Mirak, The Night Journey of Muhammad, ca. 16th century
Quiz for Source 9.2 LaunchPad
Source 9.3 Victory in Mecca: Mir Havand, The Cleansing of the Kaaba, ca. 1590
Quiz for Source 9.3 LaunchPad
Source 9.4 Conflict and Division: The Emergence of Shia Islam: Ali ibn Husayn, Poem, ca. 680
Quiz for Source 9.4 LaunchPad
Source 9.5 Conquest
Text of Thomas the Presbyter, 640 c.e.
Pact of Ibn Muslama and the People of Tiflis, 653
Quiz for Source 9.5 LaunchPad
Source 9.6 Governing an Empire: Caliph Ali, Letter to Malik Ashtar, 658 c.e.
Quiz for Source 9.6 LaunchPad
HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Assessing the Prophet Muhammad
Voice 9.1 Francis Robinson on Western Attitudes to Muhammad, from Cambridge Illustrated History: Islamic World, 1996
Voice 9.2 Karen Armstrong on Muslim Devotion to the Prophet, from Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet, 1992
9. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: Voices of Islam
Source 9.1: The Voice of Allah: The Quran, Seventh Century C.E.
Source 9.2: The Voice of the Prophet Muhammad: The Hadiths, Eighth and Ninth Centuries
Source 9.3: The Voice of the Law: The Sharia, Ninth Century
Source 9.4: The Voice of the Sufis: Inscription in Rumi’s Tomb, Thirteenth Century; Rumi: Poem, Thirteenth Century; Rumi: Mathnawi, Thirteenth Century
Source 9.5: Islamic Practice in West Africa: Ibn Battuta: Travels in Asia and Africa, 1354
Source 9.6: Men and Women at Worship: A Painting of a Muslim Congregation in a Mosque, Sixteenth Century
HISTORIANS’ VOICES: The Significance of Sufism
Voice 9.1: John Esposito on Sufi Spirituality, From The Islamic Threat: Myth of Reality, 1992
Voice 9.2: Nile Green on Sufi Power, From Sufism: A Global History, 2012
10. THE WORLDS OF CHRISTENDOM: CONTRACTION, EXPANSION, AND DIVISION, 600–1450
Christian Contraction in Asia and Africa
Byzantine Christendom: Building on the Roman Past
The Byzantine State
The Byzantine Church and Christian Divergence
Byzantium and the World
The Conversion of Russia
Western Christendom: Rebuilding in the Wake of Roman Collapse
Political Life in Western Europe
Society and the Church
Accelerating Change in the West
Europe Outward Bound: The Crusading Tradition
The West in Comparative Perspective
Pluralism in Politics
Reason and Faith
Reflections: Remembering and Forgetting: Continuity and Surprise in the Worlds of Christendom
Landmarks for Chapter 10
ZOOMING IN: Cecilia Penifader, an English Peasant and Unmarried Woman
WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: The Remaking of Western Europe
Source 10.1 The Conversion of Clovis: Gregory of Tours, History of the Franks, late 6th Century
Quiz for Source 10.1 LaunchPad
Source 10.2 Advice on Dealing with "Pagans": Pope Gregory, Advice to the English Church, 601
Quiz for Source 10.2 LaunchPad
Source 10.3 Pagan Art and Christian Texts: Lindisfarne Gospel, 698–721
Quiz for Source 10.3 LaunchPad
Source 10.4 Germanic Law: Burgundian Code, ca. 474 c.e.
Quiz for Source 10.4 LaunchPad
Source 10.5 Charlemagne’s Palace Chapel: Aachen Palace Chapel, completed 805 c.e.
Quiz for Source 10.5 LaunchPad
HISTORIANS’ VOICES: The Legacy of Rome
Voice 10.1 Blockmans and Hoppenbrouwers on the End of Roman Civilization, from Introduction to Medieval Europe, 300–1500, 2014
Voice 10.2 Cunliffe on Charlemagne, from Europe between the Oceans, 9000 BC–AD 1000, 2008
10. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: The Crusades as Cultural Encounter
Source 10.1: A Western Christian Perspective: Pope Urban II: Speech at Clermont, 1095
Source 10.2: Jewish Experience of the Crusades: Albert of Aix-la-Chapelle: An Account of Attacks on Jews during the First Crusade, Early to Mid-Twelfth Century
Source 10.3: Muslim Perspectives on the Crusades: Ibn al-Athir: The Complete History, ca. 1231
Source 10.4: Jerusalem and the Crusades in European Art: The Looting of Jerusalem, 1099; How Jerusalem Was Captured by Saladin, 1187
Source 10.5: A Byzantine Perspective on the Crusades: Nicetas Choniates: The Sack of Constantinople, 1204
Source 10.6: Admiration and Accommodation across the Religious Divide: Usmah Ibn Munqidh: Christian Piety and Muslim Piety, Mid-Twelfth Century; Fulcher of Chartres: The Latins in the East, Early Twelfth Century
Quiz for Source 10.6 LaunchPad
HISTORIANS’ VOICES: The Pope’s Agenda for the First Crusade
Voice 10.1: David Levine on Success in Reigning in Noble Violence, From At the Dawn of Modernity: Biology, Culture and Material Life in Europe after the Year 1000, 2001
Voice 10.2: Malcolm Barber on Religious Reconciliation and the First Crusade, From The Two Cities: Medieval Europe 1050-1320, 1992
11. PASTORAL PEOPLES ON THE GLOBAL STAGE: THE MONGOL MOMENT, 1200–1450
The Long History of Pastoral Peoples
The World of Pastoral Societies
Before the Mongols: Pastoralists in History
Breakout: The Mongol Empire
From Temujin to Chinggis Khan: The Rise of the Mongol Empire
Explaining the Mongol Moment
Encountering the Mongols in China, Persia, and Russia
China and the Mongols
Persia and the Mongols
Russia and the Mongols
The Mongol Empire as a Eurasian Network
Toward a World Economy
Diplomacy on a Eurasian Scale
Cultural Exchange in the Mongol Realm
The Plague: An Afro-Eurasian Pandemic
Reflections: Changing Images of Pastoral Peoples
Landmarks for Chapter 11
ZOOMING IN: A Mongol Failure: The Invasion of Japan
CONTROVERSIES: Debating Empires
WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: Perceptions of the Mongols
Source 11.1 The Self-Perception of Mongol Rulers
Chinggis Khan, Letter to Changchun, 1219
The Secret History of the Mongols, ca. 1240
Quiz for Source 11.1 LaunchPad
Source 11.2 Picturing Khubilai Khan
Liu Guandao, Khubilai on a Hunt, 1280
Marco Polo and Khubilai Khan, 15th century
Khubilai Khan in Council with His Courtiers and Scribes, 1590
Quiz for Source 11.2 LaunchPad
Source 11.3 A Persian View of the Conquest of Bukhara: Juvaini, The History of the World Conqueror, 1219
Quiz for Source 11.3 LaunchPad
Source 11.4 A European View of Mongol Life: William of Rubruck, Journey to the Land of the Mongols, ca. 1255
Quiz for Source 11.4 LaunchPad
HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Assessing the Mongol Impact
Voice 11.1 Jack Weatherford on the Mongols in World History, from Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World, 2004
Voice 11.2 Paul S. Ropp on the Mongol Impact on China’s Economy, from China in World History, 2010
11. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: Living and Dying During the Black Death
Source 11.1: The Black Death in the Islamic World: Ibn al-Wardi: Report of the Pestilence, 1348
Source 11.2: The Black Death in Western Europe: Giovanni Boccaccio: The Decameron, Mid-Fourteenth Century
Source 11.3: The Black Death in Byzantium: Emperor John VI of Byzantium: Historarum, Mid- to Late Fourteenth Century
Source 11.4: Religious Responses in the Islamic World: Ibn Kathir: The Beginning and the End: On History, ca. 1350–1351
Source 11.5: Picturing Religious Responses in the Christian World: The Flagellants, 1349; A Culture of Death, 1463
Quiz for Source 11.5 LaunchPad
Source 11.6: The Black Death and European Jews: Jacob Von Königshofen: About the Great Plague and the Burning of the Jews, ca. Early Fifteenth Century
Quiz for Source 11.6 LaunchPad
Source 11.7: A Government’s Response to the Plague: Ordinances against the Spread of Plague, Pistoia, 1348
Quiz for Source 11.7 LaunchPad
HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Winners and Losers in Europe after the Plague
Voice 11.1 Harry Miskimin on the Rural Economy after the Plague, From The Economy of Early Renaissance Europe, 1300-1460, 1975
Voice 11.2: Mavis Mate on the Effects of the Black Death on Women, From Daughters, Wives, and Widows after the Black Death, 1998
12. THE WORLDS OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY
Societies and Cultures of the Fifteenth Century
Paleolithic Persistence: Australia and North America
Agricultural Village Societies: The Igbo and the Iroquois
Pastoral Peoples: Central Asia and West Africa
Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: Comparing China and Europe
Ming Dynasty China
European Comparisons: State Building and Cultural Renewal
European Comparisons: Maritime Voyaging
Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The Islamic World
In the Islamic Heartland: The Ottoman and Safavid Empires
On the Frontiers of Islam: The Songhay and Mughal Empires
Civilizations of the Fifteenth Century: The Americas
The Aztec Empire
The Inca Empire
Webs of Connection
After 1500: Looking Ahead to the Modern Era
Reflections: What If? Chance and Contingency in World History
Landmarks for Chapter 12
ZOOMING IN: 1453 in Constantinople
WORKING WITH EVIDENCE: Islam and Renaissance Europe
Source 12.1 Portrait of Mehmed II: Gentile Bellini, Portrait of Mehmed II, ca. 1479
Quiz for Source 12.1 LaunchPad
Source 12.2 Machiavelli on the Turkish State: Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince, 1513
Quiz for Source 12.2 LaunchPad
Source 12.3 Venetian Trade in the Middle East: The Venetian Ambassador Visits Damascus, 1511
Quiz for Source 12.3 LaunchPad
Source 12.4 Greek and Islamic Philosophers in Renaissance Art: Aristotle and Averroes, 1483
Quiz for Source 12.4 LaunchPad
Source 12.5 A Papal Call for Crusade: Pope Clement VI, Call for Crusade, September 30, 1343
Quiz for Source 12.5 LaunchPad
HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Christian/Muslim Relations during the Renaissance
Voice 12.1 Jerry Brotton on the Role of Cross-cultural Exchange in the European Renaissance, from The Renaissance Bazaar: From the Silk Road to Michelangelo, 2002
Voice 12.2 Bernard Lewis on Hostility between Christians and Muslims, from Cultures in Conflict: Christians, Muslims and Jews in the Age of Discovery, 1995
12. THINKING THROUGH SOURCES: Early Encounters; First Impressions
Source 12.1: Cadamosto in a West African Chiefdom: Alvise da Cadamosto: On Meeting with Budomel, 1455
Source 12.2: Vasco da Gama at Calicut, India: A Journal of the First Voyage of Vasco da Gama, 1498
Source 12.3: Celebrating de Gama’s Arrival in Calicut, Tapestry Depicting the Arrival of da Gama at Calicut, Early Sixteenth Century
Source 12.4: Columbus in the Caribbean: Christopher Columbus: Letter to Ferdinand and Isabella, 1493
Source 12.5: Columbus Engraved: Columbus Arriving on Hispaniola, 1594
HISTORIANS’ VOICES: Assessing Christopher Columbus and his Legacy
Voice 12.1: Zvi Dor-Ner on Christopher Columbus’s Legacy, From Columbus and the Age of Discovery, 1991
Voice 12.2: Charles Mann on Remembering Columbus, From 1493: Uncovering the New World Columbus Created, 2012
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