HOMEResearch & Documentation OnlineGlossaryHacker Home Page*
* Huistory:Documenting Sources
Chicago Style: History

Professors in history and some humanities courses often require footnotes or endnotes based on The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th ed. (Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1993). When you use Chicago-style notes, you will usually be asked to include a bibliography at the end of your paper.

Although The Chicago Manual of Style does not include guidelines for documenting online sources, the University of Chicago Press recommends following the system developed by Andrew Harnack and Eugene Kleppinger in Online! A Reference Guide to Using Internet Sources, 1998 ed. (New York: St. Martin's, 1998). The examples of online sources given in this section are based on Harnack and Kleppinger's guidelines.

Chicago-style footnotes or endnotes

Notes provide complete publication information either at the bottom of the page (footnotes) or at the end of the paper (endnotes). A raised arabic numeral in the text indicates that a quotation, summary, or paraphrase has been borrowed from a source; to find the publication information for that source, readers consult the footnote or endnote with the corresponding number.

Individual notes are single-spaced, and the first line is indented one-half inch (or five spaces); double-spacing separates entries. Notes are numbered consecutively throughout the paper.

    Governor John Andrew was not allowed to recruit

    black soldiers out of state. "Ostensibly," writes

    Peter Burchard, "no recruiting was done outside

    Massachusetts, but it was an open secret that

    Andrew's agents were working far and wide."1
The first time you cite a source, the note should include publication information for that work as well as the page number on which the specific quotation, paraphrase, or summary may be found.

              1. Peter Burchard, One Gallant Rush: Robert
    Gould Shaw and His Brave Black Regiment. (New York:
    St. Martin's Press, 1965), 85.
For subsequent references to a source you have already cited, you may simply give the author's last name, followed by a comma and the page or pages cited.
              2. Burchard, 31.
If you cite more than one work by the same author, include a short form of the title in subsequent citations. A short form of the title of a book is underlined or italicized; a short form of the title of an article is put in quotation marks.
              2. Burchard, One Gallant Rush, 31.

              4. Burchard, "Civil War," 10.
Note: Chicago style no longer requires the use of "ibid." to refer to the work cited in the previous note. The Latin abbreviations "op. cit." and "loc. cit." are no longer used.
Model Notes
Sample Paper
Finding Sources


Copyright 1998, 1999, Bedford/St. Martin's