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APA references (bibliographic entries)
In APA style, the alphabetical list of works cited is called "References." This section presents specific models to follow while preparing each entry in your list, along with the following general advice.

Title and placement of list
The list of references begins on a new page at the end of your paper. Center the title "References" (without quotation marks) in the width of the page. See our sample reference pages.

Unless your instructor suggests otherwise, do not indent the first line of an entry, but indent any additional lines one-half inch (or five spaces), as follows:

Stoessinger, J. G. (1998). Why nations go to war (7th

          ed.). New York: St. Martin's Press.

This technique, known as a "hanging indent," is used for final copy: student papers and actual journal articles. For manuscripts submitted to journals, APA requires paragraph-style indents, as follows:

          Stoessinger, J. G. (1998). Why nations go to war

(7th ed.). New York: St. Martin's Press.

Throughout this section, documentation models are shown as final copy, with hanging indents. Use the format that your instructor prefers.

Alphabetizing the list
Alphabetize your list by the last names of the authors (or editors); if there is no author or editor, alphabetize by the first word of the title other than A, An, or The.

Authors' names
Invert all authors' names, and use initials instead of first names. With two or more authors, use an ampersand (&) rather than the word "and." Separate the names with commas. Use all authors' names; do not use "et al."

Place the date of publication in parentheses immediately after the last author's name.

Titles of books
Underline titles and subtitles of books; capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle (as well as all proper nouns).

Titles of articles
Do not place titles of periodical articles in quotation marks, and capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle (and all proper nouns).

Titles of periodicals
Capitalize titles of periodicals as you would capitalize them ordinarily. Underline the volume number of periodicals.

Page numbers
Use the abbreviation "p." (or "pp.") before page numbers of newspaper articles and works in anthologies, but do not use it before page numbers of articles appearing in magazines and scholarly journals. Provide inclusive page numbers, such as "pp. 203-214." If the page numbers of an article are discontinuous, provide all of them, separated by commas (for example, "A4, A5, A7").

Publishers' names
You may use a short form of a publisher's name as long as it is easily recognizable.

The following models illustrate the APA style for references (bibliographic entries) for books. For information on other types of APA references, choose one of the following options:

Books | Articles in periodicals | Electronic sources | Other sources

Directory to APA references (bibliographic entries) for books



up to Directory

1. Basic format for a book

Tapscott, D. (1998). Growing up digital. New York:


2. Two or more authors

Hamer, D., & Copeland, P. (1998). Living with our

           genes: Why they matter more than you think. New

          York: Doubleday.

Winncott, D. W., Shepherd, R., Johns, J., & Robinson,

          H. T. (1996). Thinking about children. Reading,

          MA: Addison-Wesley.

3. Corporate author
When the author is an organization, the publisher is often the same organization. In such a case, give the publisher's name as "Author."

Bank of Boston. (1997). Banking by remote control.

          Boston: Author.

4. Unknown author

Oxford essential world atlas. (1996). New York: Oxford

          University Press.

5. Editors

Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997).

           Consequences of growing up poor. New York:

          Russell Sage Foundation.

6. Translation

Singer, I. B. (1998). Shadows on the Hudson (J.

          Sherman, Trans.). New York: Farrar, Straus and

          Giroux. (Original work published 1957)

7. Edition other than the first

Helfer, M. E., Kempe, R. S., & Krugman, R. D. (1997).

          The battered child (5th ed.). Chicago: University

          of Chicago Press.

8. Work in an anthology

Fesmire, S. (1997). The social basis of character: An

           ecological humanist approach. In H. LaFollette

          (Ed.), Ethics in practice (pp. 282-292).

          Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.

9. Multivolume work

Wiener, P. (Ed.). (1973). Dictionary of the history of

          ideas (Vols. 1-4). New York: Scribner's.

10. Two or more works by the same author
Use the author's name for all entries. Arrange the entries by date, the earliest first.

Jones, J. M. (1988). Why should black undergraduate

          students major in psychology? In P. J. Woods

           (Ed.), Is psychology for them? A guide to

          undergraduate advising (pp. 178-181). Washington,

          DC: American Psychological Association.

Jones, J. M. (1996). Racism and white racial identity:

          Merging realities. In B. P. Bowser and R. G. Hunt

           (Eds.), Impacts of racism on white Americans (pp.

          1-23). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

APA in-text citations
APA references
APA manuscript
Sample paper: APA style


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