Tenth Edition| ©2019 N. Gregory Mankiw
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The bestselling Intermediate Macroeconomics text keeps getting better
Mankiw’s Macroeconomics has been the number one book for the intermediate macro course since the publication of the first edition. It maintains that bestselling status by continually bringing the leading edge of macroeconomics theory, research, and policy to the classroom, explaining complex concepts with exceptional clarity. This new edition is no exception, with Greg Mankiw streamlining his hallmark approach and adding powerful new digital learning options while improving the book's already exemplary focus on teaching students to apply the analytical tools of macroeconomics to current events and policies.
New to This Edition
SaplingPlus—technology that offers the best value and price. Because students’ needs are changing, our most powerful learning option is now also our most affordable. SaplingPlus is a new digital solution that combines LearningCurve with an integrated e-Book, robust homework with rich feedback for wrong and right answers, intuitive graphing questions, and fully digital end-of-section problems including Work It Outs. And if print is important, a package with a loose-leaf copy of the text is only a few dollars more.
A streamlined, focused revision. Always committed to brevity and clarity, Mankiw draws on extensive professional reviews, to keep the new edition focused on the topics most instructors consider essential.
Condensed coverage of consumption and investment. The material on the microeconomic foundations of consumption and investment has been condensed into a single, more accessible chapter.
- The role of culture in economic growth. (Ch 9, Economic Growth II: Technology, Empirics, and Policy
- The curious case of negative interest rates. (Ch. 12, Aggregate Demand II: Applying the IS–LM Model
- The stress tests that regulators are using to evaluate banks’ safety and soundness. (Ch. 18, The Financial System: Opportunities and Dangers)
Quick Quiz–A new assessment tool. Every chapter concludes with a Quick Quiz of six multiple-choice questions. Students can use these quizzes to immediately test their understanding of chapter material and to review for exams. Answers are available at the end of each chapter.
Updated data. As always, the data presented in the text is as current as possible.
Tenth Edition| ©2019
N. Gregory Mankiw
Tenth Edition| 2019
N. Gregory Mankiw
Table of Contents
Prelude: Celebrating the 10th Edition
Media and Resources
Part I Introduction
Chapter 1 The Science of Macroeconomics
- What Macroeconomist Study
- How Economist Think
- How this Book Proceeds
Case Study The Historical Performance of the U.S. Economy
Theory as Model Building
FYI Using Functions to Express Relationships Among Variables
The Use of Multiple Models
Prices: Flexible Versus Sticky
Microeconomic Thinking and Macroeconomic Models
FYI The Early Lives of Macroeconomists
The Data of Macroeconomics
2-1 Measuring the Value of Economic Activity: Gross Domestic Product
Income, Expenditure, and the Circular Flow
FYI Stocks and Flows
Rules for Computing GDP
Real GDP Versus Nominal GDP
The GDP Deflator
Chain-Weighted Measures of Real GDP
FYI Two Helpful Hints for Working with Percentage Changes
The Components of Expenditure
FYI What is Investment?
Case Study GDP and Its Components
Other Measures of Income
2-2 Measuring the Cost of Living: The Consumer Price Index
The Price of a Basket of Goods
How the CPI Compares to the GDP and PCE Deflators
Does the CPI Overstate Inflation?
2-3 Measuring Joblessness: The Unemployment Rate
The Household Survey
Case Study Men, Women, and Labor-Force Participation
The Establishment Survey
2-4 Conclusion: From Economic Statistics to Economic Models
Part II Classical Theory: The Economy in the Long Run
Chapter 3 National Income: Where it Comes From and Where It Goes
3-1 What Determines the Total Production of Goods and Services?
The Factors of Production
The Production Function
The Supply of Goods and Services
3-2 How Is National Income Distributed to the Factors of Production?
The Decisions Facing a Competitive Firm
The Firm’s Demand for Factors
The Division of National Income
Case Study The Black Death and Factor Prices
The Cobb–Douglas Production Function
Case Study Labor Productivity as the Key Determinant of Real Wages
FYI The Growing Gap Between Rich and Poor
3-3 What Determines the Demand for Goods and Services?
FYI The Many Different Interest Rates
3-4 What Brings the Supply and Demand for Goods and Services into Equilibrium?
Equilibrium in the Market for Goods and Services: The Supply and Demand for the Economy’s Output
Equilibrium in the Financial Markets: The Supply and Demand for Loanable Funds
Changes in Saving: The Effects of Fiscal Policy
Changes in Investment Demand
Chapter 4 The Monetary System: What It Is and How It Works
4-1 What Is Money?
The Functions of Money
The Types of Money
Case Study Money in a POW Camp
The Development of Fiat Money
Case Study Money and Social Conventions on the Island of Yap
FYI Bitcoin: The Strange Case of Digital Money
How the Quantity of Money Is Controlled
How the Quantity of Money Is Measured
FYI How Do Credit Cards and Debit Cards Fit into the Monetary System?
4-2 The Role of Banks in the Monetary System
Bank Capital, Leverage, and Capital Requirements
4-3 How Central Banks Influence the Money Supply
A Model of the Money Supply
The Instruments of Monetary Policy
Case Study Quantitative Easing and the Exploding Monetary Base
Problems in Monetary Control
Case Study Bank Failures and the Money Supply in the 1930s
Chapter 5 Inflation: Its Causes, Effects, and Social Costs
5-1 The Quantity Theory of Money
Transactions and the Quantity Equation
From Transactions to Income
The Money Demand Function and the Quantity Equation
The Assumption of Constant Velocity
Money, Prices, and Inflation
Case Study Inflation and Money Growth
5-2 Seigniorage: The Revenue from Printing Money
Case Study Paying for the American Revolution
5-3 Inflation and Interest Rates
Two Interest Rates: Real and Nominal
The Fisher Effect
Case Study Inflation and Nominal Interest Rates
Two Real Interest Rates: Ex Ante and Ex Post
5-4 The Nominal Interest Rate and the Demand for Money
The Cost of Holding Money
Future Money and Current Prices
5-5 The Social Costs of Inflation
The Layman’s View and the Classical Response
Case Study What Economists and the Public Say About Inflation
The Costs of Expected Inflation
The Costs of Unexpected Inflation
Case Study The Free Silver Movement, the Election of 1896, and The Wizard of Oz
One Benefit of Inflation
The Costs of Hyperinflation
The Causes of Hyperinflation
Case Study Hyperinflation in Interwar Germany
Case Study Hyperinflation in Zimbabwe
5-7 Conclusion: The Classical Dichotomy
Chapter 6 The Open Economy
6-1 The International Flows of Capital and Goods
The Role of Net Exports
International Capital Flows and the Trade Balance
International Flows of Goods and Capital: An Example
The Irrelevance of Bilateral Trade Balances
6-2 Saving and Investment in a Small Open Economy
Capital Mobility and the World Interest Rate
Why Assume a Small Open Economy?
How Policies Influence the Trade Balance
Evaluating Economic Policy
Case Study The U.S. Trade Deficit
Case Study Why Doesn’t Capital Flow to Poor Countries?
6-3 Exchange Rates
Nominal and Real Exchange Rates
The Real Exchange Rate and the Trade Balance
The Determinants of the Real Exchange Rate
How Policies Influence the Real Exchange Rate
The Effects of Trade Policies
The Determinants of the Nominal Exchange Rate
Case Study Inflation and Nominal Exchange Rates
The Special Case of Purchasing-Power Parity
Case Study The Big Mac Around the World
6-4 Conclusion: The United States as a Large Open Economy
Appendix: The Large Open Economy
Chapter 7 Unemployment and the Labor Market
7-1 Job Loss, Job Finding, and the Natural Rate of Unemployment
7-2 Job Search and Frictional Unemployment
Causes of Frictional Unemployment
Public Policy and Frictional Unemployment
Case Study Unemployment Insurance and the Rate of Job Finding
7-3 Real-Wage Rigidity and Structural Unemployment
Unions and Collective Bargaining
Case Study Henry Ford’s $5 Workday
7-4 Labor-Market Experience: The United States
The Duration of Unemployment
Case Study The Increase in U.S. Long-Term Unemployment and the Debate Over Unemployment Insurance
Variation in the Unemployment Rate Across Demographic Groups
Transitions Into and Out of the Labor Force
Case Study The Decline in Labor-Force Participation: 2007 to 2017
7-5 Labor-Market Experience: Europe
The Rise in European Unemployment
Unemployment Variation Within Europe
The Rise of European Leisure
Part III Growth Theory: The Economy in the Very Long Run
Chapter 8 Economic Growth I: Capital Accumulation and Population Growth
8-1 The Accumulation of Capital
The Supply and Demand for Goods
Growth in the Capital Stock and the Steady State
Approaching the Steady State: A Numerical Example
Case Study The Miracle of Japanese and German Growth
How Saving Affects Growth
8-2 The Golden Rule Level of Capital
Comparing Steady States
Finding the Golden Rule Steady State: A Numerical Example
The Transition to the Golden Rule Steady State
8-3 Population Growth
The Steady State With Population Growth
The Effects of Population Growth
Case Study Investment and Population Growth Around the World
Alternative Perspectives on Population Growth
Chapter 9 Economic Growth II: Technology, Empirics, and Policy
9-1 Technological Progress in the Solow Model
The Efficiency of Labor
The Steady State With Technological Progress
The Effects of Technological Progress
9-2 From Growth Theory to Growth Empirics
Factor Accumulation Versus Production Efficiency
Case Study Good Management as a Source of Productivity
9-3 Policies to Promote Growth
Evaluating the Rate of Saving
Changing the Rate of Saving
Allocating the Economy’s Investment
Case Study Industrial Policy in Practice
Establishing the Right Institutions
Case Study The Colonial Origins of Modern Institutions
Supporting a Pro-growth Culture
Encouraging Technological Progress
Case Study Is Free Trade Good for Economic Growth?
9-4 Beyond the Solow Model: Endogenous Growth Theory
The Basic Model
A Two-Sector Model
The Microeconomics of Research and Development
The Process of Creative Destruction
Appendix: Accounting for the Sources of Economic Growth
Part IV Business Cycle Theory: The Economy in the Short Run
Chapter 10 Introduction to Economic Fluctuations
10-1 The Facts About the Business Cycle
GDP and Its Components
Unemployment and Okun’s Law
Leading Economic Indicators
10-2 Time Horizons in Macroeconomics
How the Short Run and the Long Run Differ
Case Study If You Want to Know Why Firms Have Sticky Prices, Ask Them
The Model of Aggregate Supply and Aggregate Demand
10-3 Aggregate Demand
The Quantity Equation as Aggregate Demand
Why the Aggregate Demand Curve Slopes Downward
Shifts in the Aggregate Demand Curve
10-4 Aggregate Supply
The Long Run: The Vertical Aggregate Supply Curve
The Short Run: The Horizontal Aggregate Supply Curve
From the Short Run to the Long Run
Case Study A Monetary Lesson from French History
10-5 Stabilization Policy
Shocks to Aggregate Demand
Shocks to Aggregate Supply
Case Study How OPEC Helped Cause Stagflation in the 1970s and Euphoria in the 1980s
Chapter 11 Aggregate Demand I: Building the IS–LM Model
11-1 The Goods Market and the IS Curve
The Keynesian Cross
Case Study Cutting Taxes to Stimulate the Economy: The Kennedy and Bush Tax Cuts
Case Study Increasing Government Purchases to Stimulate the Economy: The Obama Stimulus
Case Study Using Regional Data to Estimate Multipliers
The Interest Rate, Investment, and the IS Curve
How Fiscal Policy Shifts the IS Curve
11-2 The Money Market and the LM Curve
The Theory of Liquidity Preference
Case Study Does a Monetary Tightening Raise or Lower Interest Rates?
Income, Money Demand, and the LM Curve
How Monetary Policy Shifts the LM Curve
11-3 Conclusion: The Short-Run Equilibrium
Chapter 12 Aggregate Demand II: Applying the IS–LM Model
12-1 Explaining Fluctuations With the IS–LM Model
How Fiscal Policy Shifts the IS Curve and Changes the Short-Run Equilibrium
How Monetary Policy Shifts the LM Curve and Changes the Short-Run Equilibrium
The Interaction Between Monetary and Fiscal Policy
Shocks in the IS–LM Model
Case Study The U.S. Recession of 2001
What Is the Fed’s Policy Instrument—The Money Supply or the Interest Rate?
12-2 IS–LM as a Theory of Aggregate Demand
From the IS–LM Model to the Aggregate Demand Curve
The IS–LM Model in the Short Run and Long Run
12-3 The Great Depression
The Spending Hypothesis: Shocks to the IS Curve
The Money Hypothesis: A Shock to the LM Curve
The Money Hypothesis Again: The Effects of Falling Prices
Could the Depression Happen Again?
Case Study The Financial Crisis and Great Recession of 2008 and 2009
The Liquidity Trap (Also Known as the Zero Lower Bound)
FYI The Curious Case of Negative Interest Rates
Chapter 13 The Open Economy Revisited: The Mundell–Fleming Model and the Exchange-Rate Regime
13-1 The Mundell–Fleming Model
The Key Assumption: Small Open Economy with Perfect Capital Mobility
The Goods Market and the IS* Curve
The Money Market and the LM* Curve
Putting the Pieces Together
13-2 The Small Open Economy under Floating Exchange Rates
13-1 The Small Open Economy under Fixed Exchange Rates
How a Fixed-Exchange-Rate System Works
Case Study The International Gold Standard
Case Study Devaluation and the Recovery from the Great Depression
Policy in the Mundell–Fleming Model: A Summary
13-4 Interest Rate Differentials
Country Risk and Exchange-Rate Expectations
Differentials in the Mundell–Fleming Model
Case Study International Financial Crisis: Mexico 1994–1995
Case Study International Financial Crisis: Asia 1997–1998
13-5 Should Exchange Rates Be Floating or Fixed?
Pros and Cons of Different Exchange-Rate Systems
Case Study The Debate Over the Euro
Speculative Attacks, Currency Boards, and Dollarization
The Impossible Trinity
Case Study The Chinese Currency Controversy
13-6 From the Short Run to the Long Run:The Mundell–Fleming Model With a Changing Price Level
13-7 A Concluding Reminder
Appendix: A Short-Run Model of the Large Open Economy
Chapter 14 Aggregate Supply and the Short-Run Tradeoff Between Inflation and Unemployment
14-1 The Basic Theory of Aggregate Supply
The Sticky-Price Model
An Alternative Theory: The Imperfect-Information Model
Case Study International Differences in the Aggregate Supply Curve
14-2 Inflation, Unemployment, and the Phillips Curve
Deriving the Phillips Curve from the Aggregate Supply Curve
FYI The History of the Modern Phillips Curve
Adaptive Expectations and Inflation Inertia
Two Causes of Rising and Falling Inflation
Case Study Inflation and Unemployment in the United States
The Short-Run Tradeoff between Inflation and Unemployment
FYI How Precise Are Estimates of the Natural Rate of Unemployment?
Disinflation and the Sacrifice Ratio
Rational Expectations and the Possibility of Painless Disinflation
Case Study The Sacrifice Ratio in Practice
Hysteresis and the Challenge to the Natural-Rate Hypothesis
Appendix: The Mother of All Models
Part V Topics in Macroeconomic Theory and Policy
Chapter 15 A Dynamic Model of Economic Fluctuations
15-1 Elements of the Model
Output: The Demand for Goods and Services
The Real Interest Rate: The Fisher Equation
Inflation: The Phillips Curve
Expected Inflation: Adaptive Expectations
The Nominal Interest Rate: The Monetary-Policy Rule
Case Study The Taylor Rule
15-2 Solving the Model
The Long-Run Equilibrium
The Dynamic Aggregate Supply Curve
The Dynamic Aggregate Demand Curve
The Short-Run Equilibrium
15-3 Using the Model
FYI The Numerical Calibration and Simulation
A Shock to Aggregate Supply
A Shock to Aggregate Demand
A Shift in Monetary Policy
15-4 Two Applications: Lessons for Monetary Policy
The Tradeoff Between Output Variability and Inflation Variability
Case Study Different Mandates, Different Realities: The Fed Versus the ECB
The Taylor Principle
Case Study What Caused the Great Inflation?
15-5 Conclusion: Toward DSGE Models
Chapter 16 Alternative Perspectives on Stabilization Policy
16-1 Should Policy Be Active or Passive?
Lags in the Implementation and Effects of Policies
The Difficult Job of Economic Forecasting
Case Study Mistakes in Forecasting
Ignorance, Expectations, and the Lucas Critique
The Historical Record
Case Study Is the Stabilization of the Economy a Figment of the Data?
Case Study How Does Policy Uncertainty Affect the Economy?
16-2 Should Policy Be Conducted by Rule or Discretion?
Distrust of Policymakers and the Political Process
The Time Inconsistency of Discretionary Policy
Case Study Alexander Hamilton Versus Time Inconsistency
Rules for Monetary Policy
Case Study Inflation Targeting: Rule or Constrained Discretion?
Case Study Central-Bank Independence
Appendix: Time Inconsistency and the Tradeoff Between Inflation and Unemployment
Chapter 17 Government Debt and Budget Deficits
17-1 The Size of the Government Debt
Case Study The Troubling Long-Term Outlook for Fiscal Policy
17-2 Measurement Problems
Problem 1: Inflation
Problem 2: Capital Assets
Problem 3: Uncounted Liabilities
Problem 4: The Business Cycle
17-3 The Traditional View of Government Debt
FYI Taxes and Incentives
17-4 The Ricardian View of Government Debt
The Basic Logic of Ricardian Equivalence
Consumers and Future Taxes
Case Study George H. W. Bush’s Withholding Experiment
Making a Choice
FYI Ricardo on Ricardian Equivalence
17-5 Other Perspectives on Government Debt
Balanced Budgets versus Optimal Fiscal Policy
Fiscal Effects on Monetary Policy
Debt and the Political Process
Chapter 18 The Financial System: Opportunities and Dangers
18-1 What Does the Financial System Do?
Dealing with Asymmetric Information
Fostering Economic Growth
FYI The Efficient Markets Hypothesis Versus Keynes’s Beauty Contest
18-2 Financial Crises
The Anatomy of a Crisis
FYI The TED Spread
Case Study Who Should Be Blamed for the Financial Crisis of 2008–2009?
Policy Responses to a Crisis
Policies to Prevent Crises
Case Study The European Sovereign Debt Crisis
Chapter 19 The Microfoundations of Consumption and Investment
19-1 What Determines Consumer Spending?
John Maynard Keynes and the Consumption Function
Franco Modigliani and the Life-Cycle Hypothesis
Milton Friedman and the Permanent-Income Hypothesis
Case Study The 1964 Tax Cut and the 1968 Tax Surcharge
Case Study The Tax Rebates of 2008
Robert Hall and the Random-Walk Hypothesis
Case Study Do Predictable Changes in Income Lead to Predictable Changes in Consumption?
David Laibson and the Pull of Instant Gratification
Case Study How to Get People to Save More
The Bottom Line on Consumption
19-2 What Determines Investment Spending?
The Rental Price of Capital
The Cost of Capital
The Cost-Benefit Calculus of Investment
Taxes and Investment
The Stock Market and Tobin’s q
Case Study The Stock Market as an Economic Indicator
The Bottom Line on Investment
19-3 Conclusion: The Key Role of Expectations
Epilogue What We Know, What We Don’t
The Four Most Important Lessons of Macroeconomics
Lesson 1: In the long run, a country’s capacity to produce goods and services determines the standard of living of its citizens.
Lesson 2: In the short run, aggregate demand influences the amount of goods and services that a country produces.
Lesson 3: In the long run, the rate of money growth determines the rate of inflation, but it does not affect the rate of unemployment.
Lesson 4: In the short run, policymakers who control monetary and fiscal policy face a tradeoff between inflation and unemployment.
The Four Most Important Unresolved Questions of Macroeconomics
Question 1: How should policymakers try to promote growth in the economy’s natural level of output?
Question 2: Should policymakers try to stabilize the economy? If so, how?
Question 3: How costly is inflation, and how costly is reducing inflation?
Question 4: How big a problem are government budget deficits?
N. Gregory Mankiw
N. Gregory Mankiw is the Robert M. Beren Professor of Economics at Harvard University. He began his study of economics at Princeton University, where he received an A.B. in 1980. After earning a Ph.D. in economics from MIT, he began teaching at Harvard in 1985 and was promoted to full professor in 1987. At Harvard, he has taught both undergraduate and graduate courses in macroeconomics. He is also author of the best-selling introductory textbook Principles of Economics (Cengage Learning).Professor Mankiw is a regular participant in academic and policy debates. His research ranges across macroeconomics and includes work on price adjustment, consumer behavior, financial markets, monetary and fiscal policy, and economic growth. In addition to his duties at Harvard, he has been a research associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research, a member of the Brookings Panel on Economic Activity, and an adviser to the Congressional Budget Office and the Federal Reserve Banks of Boston and New York. From 2003 to 2005 he was chairman of the President’s Council of Economic Advisers.Professor Mankiw lives in Wellesley, Massachusetts, with his wife, Deborah; children, Catherine, Nicholas, and Peter; and their border terrier, Tobin.
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Tenth Edition| 2019
N. Gregory Mankiw