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Introductory Chemistry From A Forensic Science PerspectiveThird Edition| ©2012 Matthew Johll
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Investigating Chemistry: Introductory Chemistry from a Forensic Science Perspective,Third Edition, is a unique chemistry textbook, that uses the the inherently fascinating topics of crime and criminal investigations as a context for teaching the fundamental chemical concepts most often covered in an introductory nonmajors course. Covering all the standard topics, Matthew Johll capitalizes on the surge of interest in the scientific investigation of crime (as sparked by CSI and other television shows), bringing together the theme of forensic science and the fundamentals of chemistry in ways that are effective and accessible for students.
Case Studies follow real-life crime dramas in which forensic chemistry was used to solve the case. In each chapter, a single, chapter-spanning case study involves students in the forensic process while demonstrating essential chemistry concepts in action.
The Mathematics of… sections offer a grounding the mathematical topics appropriate to each chapter that is accessible to math-anxious students but not watered down. This material is optional, giving instructors the flexibility to determine the level of mathematical coverage for their course.
Evidence Analysis boxes focus on the instruments and techniques of analysis, introducing students to essential, day-to-day laboratory work.
Worked Examples give students a helpful roadmap for solving problems.
End-of-Chapter Problem sets address a variety of student levels, and include Advanced Problems and Case Study Problems.
New to This Edition
- Chapter 1, “Planted Evidence”: A murder in the cornfi elds of Illinois is solved by means of an unusual witness.
- Chapter 3, “The Isotope Itinerary”: When a dismembered corpse turns up in a canal in Dublin, isotopes are used to follow the victim’s travels while still alive.
- Chapter 8, “Administering Murder”: The gruesome trail of murders committed by a nurse is traced by means of drug screenings and knowledge of organic chemistry.
- Chapter 10, “Tracing Explosives”: Getting to the gate in an airport takes more time now, after several bombings of passenger aircraft, including Richard Reid’s thwarted attempt. This case explores the chemistry of airline security.
- Chapter 11, “The Casey Anthony Trial”: Chemical kinetics and insects provide the forensic science for a better understanding of what really happened in the case that caused a media frenzy and a flurry of speculation in the summer of 2011.
- Chapter 14, “Remembering 9-11”: DNA has helped to resolve lingering issues of the September 11, 2001, attacks.
Third Edition| ©2012
Third Edition| 2012
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction to Forensic Chemistry
Case Study: Planted Evidence
1.2 Chemistry, Crime, and the Global Society
1.3 Physical Evidence: Matter and Its Forms
1.4 The Periodic Table
Evidence Analysis: Thin-Layer Chromatography
1.5 Learning the Language of Chemistry
1.6 The Most Important Skill of a Forensic Scientist: Observation
1.7 Critical Thinking and the Crime Scene:The Scientifi c Method
1.8 Case Study Finale: Planted Evidence
Chapter 2 Evidence Collection and Preservation
Case Study: Grave Evidence
2.1 Preserving Evidence: Reactions,Properties, and Changes
2.2 Physical Evidence Collection: Mass, Weight, and Units
2.3 Mathematics of Unit Conversions
2.4 Errors and Estimates in Laboratory Measurements: Signifi cant Figures
2.5 Mathematics of Signifi cant Figure Calculations
2.6 Experimental Results: Accuracy and Precision
2.7 How to Analyze Evidence: Density Measurements
2.8 Mathematics of Density Measurements
2.9 How to Analyze Glass and Soil: Using Physical Properties
2.10 Case Study Finale: Grave Evidence
Chapter 3 Atomic Clues
Case Study: The Isotope Itinerary
3.1 Origins of the Atomic Theory: Ancient Greek Philosophers
3.2 Foundations of a Modern Atomic Theory
3.3 Dalton’s Atomic Theory
3.4 Atomic Structure: Subatomic Particles
3.5 Nature’s Detectives: Isotopes
3.6 Atomic Mass: Isotopic Abundance and the Periodic Table
3.7 Mathematics of Isotopic Abundance and Atomic Mass
3.8 Atomic Structure: Electrons and Emission Spectra
3.9 Mathematics of Light
3.10 Atomic Structure: Electron Orbitals
3.11 Electron Confi gurations
Evidence Analysis: Scanning Electron Microscopy
3.12 Case Study Finale: The Isotope Itinerary
Chapter 4 Chemical Evidence
Case Study: Mind Games
4.1 Chemical Nature of Evidence: Regions of the Periodic Table
4.2 Types of Compounds: Covalent Compounds
4.3 Types of Compounds: Ionic Compounds
4.4 Common Names and Diatomic Elements
4.5 Basics of Chemical Reactions
4.6 Balancing Chemical Equations
4.7 Mathematics of Chemical Reactions: Mole Calculations
4.8 Mathematics of Chemical Reactions:Stoichiometry Calculations
4.9 Types of Reactions
4.10 Mathematics of Chemical Reactions:Limiting Reactants and Theoretical Yields
Evidence Analysis: Spectrophotometry
4.11 Case Study Finale: Mind Games
Chapter 5 Chemistry of Bonding:Structure and Function of Drug Molecules
Case Study: No Motive, No Opportunity
5.1 Nature of Covalent Bonds
5.2 Lewis Structures of Ionic Compounds
5.3 Lewis Structures of Covalent Compounds
5.4 Resonance Structures
5.5 VSEPR Theory
5.6 Polarity of Bonds and Molecules
5.7 Molecular Geometry of Drugs
5.8 Drug Receptors and Brain Chemistry
Evidence Analysis: Immunoassay Methods
5.9 Case Study Finale: No Motive,No Opportunity
Chapter 6 Properties of Solutions I: Aqueous Solutions
Case Study: An Aqueous Apocalypse
6.1 Aqueous Solutions
6.2 Solution Properties
6.3 Net Ionic Reactions
6.5 Mathematics of Solutions: Concentration Calculations
6.6 Acid Chemistry
6.7 Base Chemistry
6.8 Neutralization Reactions
6.9 The pH Scale and Buffers
6.10 Mathematics of Solutions: Calculating pH
6.11 Case Study Finale: An Aqueous Apocalypse
Chapter 7 Properties of Solutions II: Intermolecular Forces and Colligative Properties
Case Study: Something for the Pain
7.1 Intermolecular Forces and Surface Tension
7.2 Types of Intermolecular Forces
7.3 Mixed Intermolecular Forces
7.4 The Process of Dissolution
7.5 Rate of Dissolving Soluble Compounds
7.6 Colligative Properties: Boiling Point of Solutions
7.7 Mathematics of Boiling Point Elevation
7.8 Colligative Properties: Freezing Point of Solutions
7.9 Mathematics of Freezing Point Depression
7.10 Colligative Properties: Osmosis
7.11 Mathematics of Osmotic Pressure
Evidence Analysis: HPLC
7.12 Case Study Finale: Something for the Pain
Chapter 8 Drug Chemistry
Case Study: Administering Murder
8.1 Introduction to Organic Chemistry
8.3 Alkenes and Alkynes
8.4 Branched Isomers
8.5 Cyclic Compounds
8.6 Ethers, Ketones,and Esters
8.8 Alcohols, Aldehydes, and Carboxylic Acids
8.9 How to Extract Organic Compounds: Solubility and Acid–Base Properties
Evidence Analysis: Infrared Spectroscopy
8.10 Case Study Finale: Administering Murder
Chapter 9 Chemistry of Fire and Heat
Case Study: “False and Unreliable”
9.1 The Chemistry of Fire
9.2 Combustion Reactions
9.3 Redox Reactions
9.4 Thermochemistry of Fire
9.5 Heat Capacity and Phase Changes
9.6 Mathematics of Heat Capacity
9.7 The First Law of Thermodynamics and Calorimetry
9.8 Mathematics of Calorimetry
9.9 Petroleum Refi nement
Evidence Analysis: Gas Chromatography
9.10 Case Study Finale: “False and Unreliable”
Chapter 10 Chemistry of Explosions
Case Study: Tracing Explosives
10.1 Explosives 101
10.2 Redox Chemistry of Explosives
10.3 Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases
10.4 Gas Laws
10.5 Mathematics of the Gas Laws
10.6 The Combined and Ideal Gas Laws
10.7 Mathematics of the Combined and Ideal Gas Laws
10.8 Mathematics of Advanced Ideal Gas Law Problems
10.9 Detection of Explosives: Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures
Evidence Analysis: Mass Spectroscopy
10.10 Case Study Finale: Tracing Explosives
Chapter 11 Applications of Chemical Kinetics
Case Study: The Casey Anthony Trial
11.1 Introduction to Chemical Kinetics
11.2 Collision Theory
11.3 Kinetics and Temperature
11.4 Kinetics and Catalysts
11.5 Zero-Order Reactions
11.6 First-Order Reactions
11.8 Case Study Finale: The Casey Anthony Trial
Case Study: Elimination by Irradiation
12.1 The Discovery of Natural Radioactivity
12.2 Radiation Types and Hazards
12.3 Balancing Nuclear Equations
12.4 Half-Lives and Risk Assessment
12.5 Medical Applications of Nuclear Isotopes
12.6 Forensic Application of Carbon-14
12.7 Nuclear Power Plants
12.8 Military Uses of Nuclear Isotopes
12.9 Nuclear Transmutations
12.10 Nuclear Terrorism
Evidence Analysis: Neutron Activation Analysis
12.11 Case Study Finale: Elimination by Irradiation
Chapter 13 Chemical Equilibrium and Poisons
Case Study: A Mother-in-Law’s Justice
13.1 Introduction to Poisons
13.2 Chemical Equilibrium and Poisons
13.3 Dynamic Equilibrium
13.4 Values of the Equilibrium Constant
13.5 Le Chatelier’s Principle
13.6 Solubility Equilibrium
13.7 Mathematics of Equilibrium
13.8 Case Study Finale: A Mother-in-Law’s Justice
Chapter 14 Introduction to Biochemistry and DNA Analysis Case Study: Remembering 9-11 14.1 Lipids: Fats, Waxes, and Oils
14.4 DNA Basics
14.5 DNA Analysis
14.6 Mitochondrial DNA
14.7 Case Study Finale: Remembering 9-11
Answers to Odd-Numbered Questions and Problems
Third Edition| 2012
Dr. Matthew Johll is Professor of Chemistry and Adjunct Professor of Forensic Science at Illinois Valley Community College, where he teaches introductory and general chemistry courses. Dr. Johll received his B.S. in Chemistry from the University of Wisconsin-Platteville, and his Ph.D. in Analytical Chemistry from Iowa State University. In addition to his twenty years of teaching, he has also served as an expert witness/consultant for several murder cases in the United Kingdom, including a BBC investigation into a serial killer. He has also consulted on a Jane Doe case in central Illinois, in which new scientific methods are being employed to identify the victim. When he is not writing, editing, grading, or teaching, he can be found camping with his three sons and serving as Scoutmaster for their Boy Scout troop. He was recently honored with the National Outstanding Eagle Scout award for his professional achievements.
Third Edition| 2012
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Third Edition| 2012