Chapter 12
Step One—Read the Chapter and Take Notes As You Go
This outline reflects the major headings and subheadings in this chapter of your textbook. Use it to take notes as you read each section of the chapter. In your notes, try to restate the main idea of each section.
CHAPTER 12: European Society in the Age of the Renaissance, 1350–1550
I. Wealth and Power in Renaissance Italy
  A. Trade and Prosperity
    1. Improvements in Shipbuilding 
    2. Rise of Florence 
    3. Prosperity 
  B. Communes and Republics of Northern Italy
    1. Communes 
    2. Social and Political Structures 
    3. Signori 
  C. City-States and the Balance of Power
    1. Five Major Powers 
    2. Competition and Diplomacy 
    3. The French Invasion and Savonarola

II. Intellectual Change 
  A. Humanism
    1. Petrarch (1304–1374) 
    2. Cicero and Plato    
    3. Virtù 
    4. Leon Battista Alberti (1404–1472) 
  B. Education
    1. Humanist Schools 
    2. Education for Women 
    3. Baldassare Castiglione’s The Courtier (1528) 
  C. Political Thought
    1. Civic Humanism 
    2. Niccolò Machiavelli (1469–1527) 
    3. Differences with Medieval Political Philosophy 
  D. Christian Humanism
    1. Beliefs 
    2. Thomas More (1478–1535) 
    3. Desiderius Erasmus (1466–1536) 
  E. The Printed Word
    1. The Printing Press 
    2. Expanded Market for Reading 
    3. Impact 

III. Art and the Artist 
  A. Patronage and Power
    1. Patrons
    2. Artists 
    3. Reasons for Patronage 
  B. Changing Artistic Styles
    1. Themes 
    2. Human Ideals  
    3. Artistic Centers 
    4. Mannerism 
  C. The Renaissance Artist
    1. Concept of Genius 
    2. Training 
    3. Women Artists
    4. Limits of Renaissance Culture 

IV. Social Hierarchies

  A. Race and Slavery
    1. Race 
    2. Slavery 
    3. Black Slaves
    4. Black Servants and Laborers
  B. Wealth and the Nobility
    1. Hierarchy of Wealth  
    2. Hierarchy of Orders
    3. Honor 
  C. Gender Roles
    1. “Debate about Women” 
    2. Popular Interest in “the Debate” 
    3. Debates about Female Rulers 
    4. Women’s Status

V. Politics and the State in Western Europe
  A. France
    1. Political Stabilization 
    2. First Permanent Royal Army 
    3. Key Marriages 
    4. Religious Stability 
  B. England
    1. Disorder
    2. Stabilization 
    3. Methods
  C. Spain 
    1. Confederation 
    2. The Spanish Monarchy 
    3. Anti-Jewish Attitudes
    4. The Inquisition
    5. Expulsion (1492)