Chapter 13
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CHAPTER 13: Reformations and Religious Wars, 1500–1600
I. The Early Reformation
  A. The Christian Church in the Early Sixteenth Century
    1. Piety 
    2. Church Criticism and Reform 
    3. Anticlericalism 
  B. Martin Luther (1483–1546)
    1. The Life of Luther 
    2. Justification by Faith 
    3. Indulgences
    4. The Ninety-Five Theses (1517)
    5. The Break with Rome 
  C. Protestant Thought
    1. Ulrich Zwingli (1484–1531)
    2. Protestants   
    3. Protestant Ideas 
    4. Protestant Disagreements  
  D. The Appeal of Protestant Ideas
    1. The Power of Luther’s Ideas
    2. The Printing Press 
    3. Political Authority 
  E. The Radical Reformation and the German Peasants’ War
    1. Radical Reformers 
    2. Impact of Radical Reformers 
    3. Peasant Rebellion 
  F. Marriage, Sexuality, and the Role of Women
    1. Attack on Clerical Celibacy 
    2. Position of Women
    3. Marriage 
    4. Condemnation of Prostitution
    5. Nuns and Convents 

II. The Reformation and German Politics
  A. The Rise of the Habsburg Dynasty
    1. Strategic Marriages
    2. Charles V (1550–1558) 
  B. Religious Wars in Switzerland and Germany
    1. Assumptions about Religion 
    2. Luther’s Appeal to German Leaders
    3. Religious Wars
    4. A Religious Stalemate (1530)
    5. Peace of Augsburg (1555)

III. The Spread of Protestant Ideas
  A. Scandinavia
    1. Denmark-Norway
    2. Northern Norway and Iceland 
    3. Sweden 
  B. Henry VIII and the Reformation in England
    1. Henry’s Wives 
    2. Religious Changes
    3. Government Administration
    4. Popular Support 
    5. Ireland
  C. Upholding Protestantism in England
    1. Edward VI (r. 1547–1553) 
    2. Mary Tudor (r. 1553–1558) 
    3. Elizabeth I (r. 1558–1603)
    4. Threats to English Protestantism
    5. The Spanish Armada
  D. Calvinism
    1. John Calvin (1509–1564) 
    2. Calvin’s Theology 
    3. Impact 
    4. John Knox (1505?–1572)
  E. The Reformation in Eastern Europe
    1. Bohemia  
    2. Poland-Lithuania 
    3. Hungary 

IV. The Catholic Reformation
  A. Papal Reform and the Council of Trent
    1. Catholic Reform Under Pope Paul III 
    2. The Holy Office (1542) 
    3. Council of Trent (1545–1563)
  B. New and Reformed Religious Orders
    1. Ursuline Order of Nuns
    2. The Jesuits

V. Religious Violence
  A. French Religious Wars
    1. The Concordat of Bologna (1516)
    2. Huguenots  
    3. The Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (1572)
    4. Politiques
    5. Edict of Nantes (1598)
  B. The Netherlands Under Charles V
    1. Background 
    2. The Spread of Calvinism
    3. Civil War (1568-1578)
    4. Union of Utrecht (1581)
  C. The Great European Witch Hunt (1480s–1660)
    1. Reasons for the Witch-Hunts 
    2. Gender and Witchcraft Trials 
    3. Legal Procedure