Chapter 14
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CHAPTER 14: European Exploration and Conquest, 1450–1650
I. World Contacts Before Columbus
  A. The Trade World of the Indian Ocean
    1. Trade Routes 
    2. The Chinese Economy 
    3. Chinese Voyages of Exploration 
    4. India 
  B. The Trading States of Africa
    1. Empires and States
    2. Trans-Saharan Trade Routes 
    3. Slaves
  C. The Ottoman and Persian Empires
    1. Persian Safavids
    2. Turkish Ottomans
  D. Genoese and Venetian Middlemen
    1. European Trading Centers 
    2. Venice
    3. Genoa
    4. Slavery   

II. The European Voyages of Discovery
  A. Causes of European Expansion
    1. Economics 
    2. Desire for Spices 
    3. Religious Fervor 
    4. Renaissance Curiosity 
    5. Lack of Economic Opportunity at Home
    6. Government Power 
    7. Life at Sea
    8. Interest at Home
  B. Technology and the Rise of Exploration
    1. Stronger Ships
    2. Improvements in Cartography
    3. New Technology
  C. The Portuguese Overseas Empire
    1. Favorable Geography 
    2. Henry the Navigator
    3. Bartholomew Diaz and Vasco da Gama
  D. The Problem of Christopher Columbus
    1. Columbus’s Goals 
    2. Discoveries 
    3. Conquest
  E. Later Explorers
    1. Amerigo Vespucci (1454–1512)
    2. Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
    3. Ferdinand Magellan (1480–1521)
    4. John Cabot 
    5. Jacques Cartier 
  F. Spanish Conquest in the New World
    1. Mexico
    2. The Inca Empire 
  G. Early French and English Settlement in the New World
    1. English Settlements 
    2. French Settlements
    3. French Settlements in the West Indies

III. The Impact of Conquest
  A. Colonial Administration
    1. Viceroyalties 
    2. Viceroy 
    3. Brazil 
    4. France and England
  B. Impact of European Settlement on the Lives of Indigenous Peoples
    1. Indigenous Peoples 
    2. The Encomienda System 
    3. Native Population Losses
    4. Missionaries 
  C. Life in the Colonies
    1. Women 
    2. European Cultural Attitudes 
    3. African Women 
  D. The Columbian Exchange
    1. The Columbian Exchange 
    2. Plants and Animals 
    3. Disease 

IV. Europe and the World After Columbus
  A. Sugar and Slavery
    1. Slavery in the Mediterranean World 
    2. Portuguese Slavery
    3. Sugar and Slavery
    4. The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
    5.  Conditions
  B. Spanish Silver and Its Economic Effects
    1. Silver
    2. Inflation 
    3. Globalization 
  C. The Birth of the Global Economy
    1. The Portuguese Empire 
    2. The Spanish Empire 
    3. The Dutch Empire

V. Changing Attitudes and Beliefs
  A. New Ideas About Race
    1. Dehumanizing Africans 
    2. Racial Inequality
    3. Justifications
  B. Michel de Montaigne and Cultural Curiosity
    1. Skepticism and Cultural Relativism 
    2. Essay 
  C. William Shakespeare and His Influence
    1. Works 
    2. Shakespeare and Race