Chapter 15
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CHAPTER 15: Absolutism and Constitutionalism, ca. 1589–1725
I. Seventeenth-Century Crisis and Rebuilding
  A. The Social Order and Peasant Life
    1. Social Hierarchy
    2. Patriarchy
    3. The Textures of Village Life 
    4. Diet 
  B. Famine and Economic Crisis
    1. Economic Crisis
    2. Industry Decline
  C. The Thirty Years’ War
    1. Tensions in the Holy Roman Empire 
    2. Four Phases of the War
    3. Peace of Westphalia (1648) 
  D. Achievements in State-Building
    1. Common Goals
    2. Obstacles
    3. Growth of Central Authority and State Sovereignty
  E. Warfare and the Growth of Army Size
    1. Monarchical Control 
    2. Professionalism 
    3. Growth in Army Size
    4. Glory and Honor
  F. Popular Political Action
    1.  Popular Revolts 
    2.  Urban Uprisings in France 

II. Absolutism in France and Spain
  A. The Foundations of Absolutism
    1. Henry IV
    2. Cardinal Richelieu
    3. Cardinal Mazarin
    4. The Fronde
  B. Louis XIV (r. 1643–1715) and Absolutism
    1. Divine Right of Kings 
    2. Louis’s Rule
    3. Repression of Protestants 
    4. Limits on Louis’s Power
  C. Life at Versailles
    1. Nobility 
    2. Daily Life
    3. Patronage and Privileges
  D. French Financial Management Under Colbert
    1. Mercantilism 
    2. Colbert’s Policies
    3. Mercantilism Abroad 
  E. Louis XIV’s Wars
    1. Marquis de Louvois
    2. Conquests
    3. Defeats 
    4. Financing the Wars
  F. The Decline of Absolutist Spain in the Seventeenth Century
    1. Decline in Trade
    2. Fiscal Crisis and Economic Ruin 
    3. Military Defeats

III. Absolutism in Austria and Prussia
  A. The Return of Serfdom in the East
    1. Erosion of Peasant Liberties
    2. The Legal System
    3. Growth of Commercial Agriculture
  B. The Austrian Habsburgs
    1. Consolidation at Home 
    2. Bohemia
    3. Hungary 
  C. Prussia in the Seventeenth Century
    1. Hohenzollerns
    2. Junkers
    3. The Absolutist Solution
  D. The Consolidation of Prussian Absolutism
    1. Frederick William I  
    2. The Prussian Army

IV. The Development of Russia and the Ottoman Empire
  A. The Mongol Yoke and the Rise of Moscow
    1. Mongol Rule 
    2. Ivan III
    3. Tsars 
  B. The Tsar and His People
    1. Ivan IV
    2. Cossacks
    3. The Time of Troubles
    4. The Romanov Dynasty
  C. The Reforms of Peter the Great
    1. Goals 
    2. Reforms
    3. Achievements
  D. The Growth of the Ottoman Empire
    1. Ottomans 
    2. Unique Model of State and Society
    3. Sultans 

V. Alternatives to Absolutism in England and the Dutch Republic
  A. Absolutist Claims in England
    1. Queen Elizabeth I
    2. James I 
    3. Charles I
  B. Religious Divides and the English Civil War
    1. Puritans
    2. The Royal Response 
    3. The Long Parliament (1640–1660)
    4. The Civil War (1642–1649)
  C. Cromwell and Puritanical Absolutism in England
    1. Thomas Hobbes
    2. Protectorate
  D. The Restoration of the English Monarchy
    1. Restoration
    2. Charles II
    3. James II
  E. Constitutional Monarchy and Cabinet Government
    1. Glorious Revolution
    2. John Locke
    3. Age of Aristocratic Government
  F. The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century
    1. The Dutch Republic 
    2. Commercial Prosperity 

VI. Baroque Art and Music
    1. Baroque 
    2. Origins
    3. Baroque Music