Chapter 18
Step One—Read the Chapter and Take Notes As You Go
This outline reflects the major headings and subheadings in this chapter of your textbook. Use it to take notes as you read each section of the chapter. In your notes, try to restate the main idea of each section.

CHAPTER 18: Life in the Era of Expansion, 1650–1800
I. Marriage and the Family
  A. Late Marriage and Nuclear Families
    1. Nuclear Families
    2. Delayed Marriage 
    3. Impact of Delayed Marriage
  B. Work Away from Home
    1. Apprenticeships 
    2. Work for Girls
    3. Domestic Servants
  C. Premarital Sex and Community Controls
    1. Birth Control 
    2. Illegitimacy 
    3. Community Controls
    4. Charivari
  D. New Patterns of Marriage and Illegitimacy
    1. Fewer Arranged Marriages
    2. Illegitimacy Explosion
    3. Reasons
  E. Sex on the Margins of Society
    1. Prostitution
    2. Homosexuality
    3. Diminishing Tolerance

II. Children and Education
  A. Child Care and Nursing
    1. High Mortality
    2. Breast-Feeding
    3. Wet-Nursing
    4. Criticism of Wet-Nursing
  B. Foundlings and Infanticide
    1. Abortions
    2. Infanticide
    3. Foundling Homes
  C. Attitudes Towards Children
    1. Emotional Distance
    2. Severe Discipline
    3. Enlightenment Attitudes
  D. The Spread of Elementary Schools
    1. Religious Schools
    2. State Education

III. Popular Culture and Consumerism
  A. Popular Literature
    1. Rise in Literacy
    2. Reading Materials
    3. Enlightenment Literature
  B. Leisure and Recreation
    1. Oral Cultures
    2. Towns and Cities
    3. Carnival
    4. Criticism
  C. New Foods and Appetites
    1. Traditional Peasant Diets
    2. Diet of the Wealthy
    3. Changes in Food Consumption
    4. Reasons
  D. Towards a Consumer Society
    1. Consumer Revolution
    2. Clothing
    3. Gender Distinctions
    4. New Attitudes Towards Space
    5. Hygiene

IV. Religious Authority and Beliefs
  A. Church Hierarchy
    1. Parish Church
    2. Increased State Control
    3. Abolition of the Orders
  B. Protestant Revival
    1. Need for Renewal
    2. Pietism
    3. Methodism
  C. Catholic Piety
    1. The Church and Community Life
    2. Jansenism
  D. Marginal Beliefs and Practices
    1. Popular Piety
    2. “Purifying” Popular Spirituality

V. Medical Practice
  A. Faith Healing and General Practice
    1. Faith Healers
    2. Lotions and Potions
    3. Physicians
  B. Hospitals and Surgery
    1. Anatomy
    2. Anesthesia
  C. Midwifery
    1. Duties
    2. Competition
    3. Nursing
  D. The Conquest of Smallpox
    1. The Great Killer
    2. Inoculation
    3. Edward Jenner (1749–1823)