Chapter 19
Step One—Read the Chapter and Take Notes As You Go
This outline reflects the major headings and subheadings in this chapter of your textbook. Use it to take notes as you read each section of the chapter. In your notes, try to restate the main idea of each section.

CHAPTER 19: Revolution in Politics, 1775–1815
I. Background to Revolution
  A. Social Change
    1. Social Divisions
    2. New Inequalities between Rich and Poor
    3. Slavery
  B. Growing Demands for Liberty and Equality
    1. Human Rights
    2. Human and Economic Equality
    3. The Roots of Revolution
  C. The Seven Years’ War
    1. Origins
    2. North America
    3. Treaty of Paris
    4. Aftermath

II. The American Revolutionary Era, 1775—1789
  A. The Origins of the Revolution
    1. Consequences of Taxation 
    2. Independence 
    3. Boston Tea Party
    4. First Continental Congress
  B. Independence from Britain
    1. Calls for Independence
    2. Declaration of Independence
    3. Patriots vs. Loyalists
    4. Foreign Support
    5. Treaty of Paris
  C. Framing the Constitution
    1. Federal Government
    2. Bill of Rights
  D. Limitations of Liberty and Equality
    1. Slaves
    2. Native Americans
    3. Women

III. Revolution in France, 1789—1791
  A. Breakdown of the Old Order
    1. Soaring Debt 
    2. Tax Increases 
    3. Desacralization
    4. Louis XVI
  B. The Formation of the National Assembly
    1. The Estates General
    2. The Estates
    3. Demands for Change
    4. Deadlock over Voting Procedures
    5. The National Assembly
    6. The King’s Response
  C. Popular Uprising and the Rights of Man
    1. Economic Hardship
    2. The Popular Uprising
    3. Peasant Insurrections
    4. Reforms 
    5. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    6. Effects
    7. Women’s March
  D. A Constitutional Monarchy and Its Challenges
    1. Reforms by the National Assembly
    2. No Suffrage for Women
    3. Political Reforms
    4. Religious Reforms

IV. World War and Republican France, 1791–1799
  A. The International Response
    1. Division of Opinion
    2. The Threat of Foreign Intervention
    3. The Jacobin Club
    4. The King’s Arrest
  B. The Second Revolution and the New Republic
    1. Second Revolution
    2. Girondists and the Mountain
    3. French Invasions
    4. Counter-Revolutionary Efforts
    5. The Triumph of the Mountain
    6. Committee of Public Safety
  C. Total War and the Terror
    1. Planned Economy
    2. Reign of Terror (1793–1794)
    3. Nationalism
  D. The Thermidorian Reaction and the Directory
    1. Increased Terror
    2. Thermidorian Reaction
    3. The Directory 

V. The Napoleonic Era, 1799–1815
  A. Napoleon’s Rule of France
    1. Napoleon Bonaparte (1769–1821)
    2. Seizure of Power 
    3. Domestic Policy
  B. Napoleon’s Expansion in Europe
    1. Foreign Policy Successes
    2. Efforts at Expansion
    3. Further Expansion

VI. The Haitian Revolution, 1791–1804
  A. Revolutionary Aspirations in Saint-Domingue
    1. Social Tensions
    2. Code Noir
    3. Impact of the French Revolution
    4. Violence
  B. The Outbreak of Revolt
    1. Action from Below
    2. Foreign Intervention
    3. Abolition of Slavery
  C. The War of Haitian Independence
    1. Civil War 
    2. Napoleon’s Intervention
    3. The Birth of Haiti