Chapter 20
Step One—Read the Chapter and Take Notes As You Go
This outline reflects the major headings and subheadings in this chapter of your textbook. Use it to take notes as you read each section of the chapter. In your notes, try to restate the main idea of each section.

CHAPTER 20: The Revolution in Energy and Industry, ca. 1780–1850
I. The Industrial Revolution in Britain
  A. Origins of the British Industrial Revolution
    1. Mercantilism
    2. Agriculture 
    3. Geography
    4. State and Policies
    5. The Industrial Revolution
  B. Technological Innovations and Early Factories
    1. Machine Power
    2. Cotton
    3. The Spinning Jenny and the Water Frame
    4. Working Conditions
  C. The Steam Engine Breakthrough
    1. Coal
    2. Steam Engines
    3. James Watt (1736–1819)
    4. Impact
  D. The Coming of the Railroads (1816–1830)
    1. Advantages
    2. Significance
  E. Industry and Population
    1. Crystal Palace (1851)
    2. Industrial Achievements
    3. Debates About Population Growth
    4. Assessing the Debate

II. Industrialization Beyond Britain
  A. National and International Variations
    1. The British Head Start
    2. Variations in Timing
    3. Deindustrialization
  B. Industrialization In Continental Europe
    1. Widening Gap Between Britain and the Continent
    2. Cost
    3. Continental Advantages
  C. Agents of Industrialization
    1. Émigré Technicians
    2. Émigré Workers
    3. Indigenous Entrepreneurs
  D. Government Support and Corporate Banking
    1. Tariff Protection
    2. Infrastructure
    3. Corporate Banks
    4. Continental Growth
  E. The Situation Outside of Europe
    1. Russia
    2. Egypt and India
    3. Latin America

III. New Patterns of Working and Living
  A. Work in Early Factories
    1. Harsh Conditions
    2. Pauper Children
  B. Working Families and Children
    1. Family Units
    2. Ties of Kinship
    3. Factory Acts
  C. The New Sexual Division of Labor
    1. Separate Spheres
    2. Women Workers
    3. Explanations (For Gender Inequality)
    4. Mines Act of 1842

IV. Relations Between Capital and Labor
  A. The New Class of Factory Owners
    1. Competition
    2. Background
    3. Growing Class Consciousness
  B. Debates over Industrialization
    1. Critics of the Industrial Revolution
    2. Defenders
  C. The Early British Labor Movement
    1. Persistence of Traditions
    2. Combination Acts
    3. The Response
  D. The Impact of Slavery
    1. Impact
    2. Abolition