Chapter 21
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CHAPTER 21: Ideologies and Upheavals, 1815–1850
I. The Aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars
  A. The European Balance of Power
    1. The Peace of Paris 
    2. The Congress of Vienna 
    3. The Balance of Power 
  B. Metternich and Conservatism
    1. Metternich’s Ideas 
    2. Liberalism and Nationalism
    3. The Multiethnic Austrian Empire 
    4. Russia and the Ottoman Empire 
  C. Repressing the Revolutionary Spirit
    1. Holy Alliance 
    2. Repression in Spain and Italy 
    3. The Karlsbad Decrees (1819)
  D. Limits to Conservative Power and Revolution in South America
    1. Creole Revolt
    2. Caudillos

II. The Spread of Radical Ideas
  A. Liberalism and the Middle Class
    1. The Ideas of Liberalism 
    2. Liberal Political Ideas
  B. The Growing Appeal of Nationalism
    1. Origins 
    2. Overcoming Challenges
    3. Nationalist Beliefs
  C. The Foundation of Modern Socialism
    1. Socialism
    2. Beliefs 
    3. Count Henri de Saint-Simon (1760–1825) 
    4. Charles Fourier (1772–1837) 
    5. Pierre Joseph Proudhon (1809–1865)
    6. Louis Blanc (1811–1882)
    7. Socialism in France 
  D. The Birth of Marxist Socialism
    1. Marxism
    2. Karl Marx (1818–1883)
    3. The Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat
    4. The Communist Manifesto

III. The Romantic Movement
  A. The Tenets of Romanticism
    1. Romanticism
    2. View of Nature
    3. History 
    4. Lifestyles
  B. Literature
    1. William Wordsworth (1770–1850)
    2. Germaine de Staël (1766-1817)
    3. Victor Hugo (1802–1885)
    4. Central and Eastern Europe
  C. Art and Music
    1. Eugène Delacroix (1798–1863)
    2. Joseph M.W. Turner (1775–1851) and John Constable (1776–1837)
    3. Romantic Music 

IV. Reforms and Revolutions Before 1848
  A. National Liberation in Greece
    1. Ottoman Domination 
    2. The Greek Revolt (1821) 
    3. Foreign Intervention 
  B. Liberal Reform in Great Britain
    1. Reasons for Reform 
    2. Calls for Reform
    3. Reform Bill of 1832 
    4. Calls for Further Reform
  C. Ireland and the Great Famine
    1. Miserable Conditions 
    2. Population Explosion
    3. The Great Famine (1845, 1846, 1848, 1851) 
  D. The Revolution of 1830 in France
    1. Constitutional Charter of 1814
    2. The Revolution of 1830
    3. Louis Philippe

V. The Revolutions of 1848
  A. A Democratic Republic in France
    1. Insurrection in Paris 
    2. Fissures in the Revolutionary Coalition 
    3. Alexis de Tocqueville
    4. Violent Conflict
  B. Revolution and Reaction in the Austrian Empire
    1. Near Collapse of the Absolutist Order 
    2. Cracks in the Revolutionary Coalition 
    3. Ethnic Tensions 
    4. Restoration 
  C. Prussia, the German Confederation, and the Frankfurt National Parliament
    1. Liberal Goals
    2. A New Liberal Constitution
    3. Greater Germany
    4. Restoration