Chapter 22

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This outline reflects the major headings and subheadings in this chapter of your textbook. Use it to take notes as you read each section of the chapter. In your notes, try to restate the main idea of each section.

CHAPTER 22: Life in the Emerging Urban Society, 1840–1914
I. Taming the City
  A. Industry and the Growth of Cities
    1. Deplorable Urban Conditions
    2. Population Growth 
    3. Reasons for the Awful Conditions
  B. The Advent of the Public Health Movement
    1. Utilitarianism
    2. Edwin Chadwick 
  C. The Bacterial Revolution
    1. Louis Pasteur (1822–1895) 
    2. Robert Koch
    3. Joseph Lister (1827–1912)
  D. Improvements in Urban Planning
    1. The Squalor of Paris 
    2. Georges Haussmann (1809–1884)
    3. The New Urbanism
  E. Public Transportation
    1. Streetcar Lines 
    2. Suburban Commuting

II. Rich and Poor and Those in Between
  A. The Distribution of Income
    1. Workers’ Wages 
    2. Income Gaps
    3. New Subclasses 
  B. The People and Occupations of the Middle Classes
    1. Middle-Middle Class 
    2. Lower-Middle Class
  C. Middle-Class Culture and Values
    1. Food
    2. Servants and Housing 
    3. Clothing and Culture
    4. Values

D. The People and Occupations of the Working Classes

    1. Size
    2. Highly Skilled Workers
    3. Semi-Skilled Workers 
    4. Unskilled Workers
  E. Working-Class Leisure and Religion
    1. Drinking 
    2. Sports and Music Halls 
    3. Religion 

III. Changing Family Lifestyles
  A. Middle-Class Marriage and Courtship Rituals
    1. Romantic Considerations 
    2. Courtship
    3. Marriage
  B. Middle- and Working-Class Sexuality
    1. Middle Class Double Standards
    2. Working Class Sexual Standards
  C. Prostitution
    1. A Widespread Profession 
    2. Customers
    3. Prostitutes
    4. Changing Attitudes
    5. Contagious Diseases Acts
  D. Separate Spheres and the Importance of Homemaking
    1. Separate Spheres
    2. Wives
    3. Benefits of Homemaking
  E. Child Rearing
    1. Growing Love Toward Children 
    2. Reduction in Family Size
    3. Middle-Class Household 
    4. Gender Roles
    5. Working-Class Households
  F. The Feminist Movement
    1. Gender Division
    2. The Struggle for Equality
    3. The Suffrage Movement
    4. Germany and Socialism 

IV. Science and Thought
  A. The Triumph of Science in Industry
    1. Scientific Breakthroughs 
    2. The Second Industrial Revolution
    3. Consequences 
  B. Darwin and Natural Selection
    1. Charles Lyell (1797–1875) 
    2. Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744–1829)
    3. Charles Darwin (1809–1882)
    4. Social Darwinism
  C. The Modern University and the Social Sciences
    1. Social Sciences
    2. Max Weber (1864—1920)
    3. Emile Durkheim (1858—1917)
    4. Effects
  D. Realism in Art and Literature
    1. Characteristics
    2. Honoré de Balzac (1799–1850)
    3. Gustave Flaubert (1821–1880)
    4. Émile Zola (1840–1902)
    5. George Eliot (1819–1880) 
    6. Leo Tolstoy (1828–1910)