Chapter 23

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CHAPTER 23: The Age of Nationalism, 1850–1914
I. Napoleon III and the Authoritarian Nation State in France
  A. France’s Second Republic
    1. Louis Napoleon’s Election Victory 
    2. Louis Napoleon’s Program 
    3. Political Steps
  B. Napoleon III’s Second Empire
    1. Economic Measures 
    2. Political Power  
    3. Disintegration 

II. Nation Building in Italy, Germany, and the United States
  A. Italy to 1850
    1. Italian Disunity 
    2. Three Approaches to Unification
    3. Papal Opposition 
  B. Cavour and Garibaldi in Italy
    1. Count Camillo Benso di Cavour 
    2. Unifying Northern Italy
    3. Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807–1882)
    4. The New Kingdom of Italy
  C. Growing Austro-Prussian Rivalry
    1. Political Stalemate 
    2. The Zollverein 
    3. Prussia and Unification 
  D. Bismarck and the Austro-Prussian War
    1. Otto von Bismarck (1815–1898) 
    2. The War Against Denmark 
    3. The Austro-Prussian War 
  E. Taming the German Parliament
    1. Wedding Nationalism and Conservatism
    2. Bismarck’s Constitution 
    3. Co-opting Liberals 
  F. The Franco-Prussian War
    1. Unifying the South 
    2. Prussian Victory
    3. The Consequences 
  G. Slavery and Nation Building in the United States
    1. North and South
    2. Tensions between North and South
    3. The Civil War (1861–1865)
    4. Characteristics of American Life

III. The Modernization of Russia and the Ottoman Empire
  A. The “Great Reforms” in Russia
    1. Origins
    2. The Crimean War (1853-1856)
    3. Reforms
    4. Economic Modernization 
    5. Sergei Witte 
  B. The Russian Revolution of 1905
    1. Military Defeat 
    2. Bloody Sunday 
    3. Czarist Reforms
    4. Russia in 1914 
  C. Reform and Readjustment in the Ottoman Empire
    1. The Ottoman Empire
    2. The Tanzimat 
    3. The Consequences of Reform
    4. The Young Turks 

IV. The Responsive National State, 1871–1914
  A. The German Empire
    1. Structure
    2. The Kulturkampf  
    3. Anti-Socialist Reforms
    4. William II (r. 1888–1918) 
  B. Republican France
    1. The Paris Commune 
    2. Stabilizing Factors 
    3. Republican Legislation 
    4. The Dreyfus Affair 
  C. Great Britain and Ireland
    1. Political Reforms 
    2. Social Welfare Legislation
    3. Irish Home Rule 
  D. The Austro-Hungarian Empire
    1. The Dual Monarchy
    2. Austria 
    3. Hungary  

V. The Nation and the People
  A. Making National Citizens
    1. Challenges to Unity
    2. Nationalism’s Popularity
    3. Symbols and Rituals
  B. Nationalism and Racism
    1. Scientific Understandings
    2. Persecution and Exclusion
  C. Jewish Emancipation and Modern Anti-Semitism
    1. Jewish Emancipation 
    2. Anti-Semitism 
    3. Zionism 

VI. Marxism and the Socialist Movement
  A. The Socialist International
    1. The German SPD 
    2. The First International
    3. The Second International 
  B. Unions and Revisionism
    1. Militant Rhetoric and Moderate Action
    2. Reasons for Moderation 
    3. Revisionism
    4. National Differences