Chapter 24

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CHAPTER 24: The West and the World, 1815–1914
I. Industrialization and the World Economy
  A. The Rise of Global Inequality
    1. Impact of the Industrial Revolution 
    2. Gaps 
    3. Competing Explanations
  B. The World Market
    1. British Exports 
    2. British Imports
    3. Facilitators of International Trade 
    4. Capital 
  C. The Opening of China
    1. Traditional Restrictions 
    2. The Opium Trade 
    3. First Opium War
    4. The Treaty of Nanking
    5. Second Opium War 
  D. Japan and the United States
    1. Japanese Isolation 
    2. Gunboat Diplomacy 
  E. Western Penetration of Egypt
    1. Muhammad Ali (1769–1849) 
    2. Ismail 
    3. Foreign Occupation 

II. Global Migration Around 1900
  A. The Pressure of Population
    1. Population Growth
    2. Emigration
    3. Patterns of Emigration 
  B. European Emigration
    1. Who Were the Emigrants? 
    2. Repatriation 
    3. Reasons for Emigration 
  C. Asian Emigration
    1. Statistics
    2. Reasons for Migration 
    3. Discrimination
    4. Nativism

III. Western Imperialism, 1880–1914
  A. The European Presence in Africa Before 1880
    1. European Settlements 
    2. Trading Posts 
  B. The Scramble for Africa After 1880
    1. European Takeovers
    2. The British 
    3. Berlin Conference (1884–1885)
    4. German Colonialism
    5. Further British Conquests 
  C. Imperialism in Asia
    1. The Dutch East Indies 
    2. Russia 
    3. The United States 
  D. Causes of the New Imperialism
    1. Economic Motives 
    2. Political and Diplomatic Motives 
    3. Social Darwinism and Racial Doctrines
    4. Technological Superiority  
    5. Domestic Policies
    6. Special Interest Groups 
  E. A “Civilizing Mission”
    1. The “Civilizing Mission” 
    2. Rudyard Kipling (1865–1936) 
    3. The Spread of Christianity
  F. Orientalism
    1. Orientalism
    2. Western Views of the Orient
    3. Scholarship, Art, and Literature
  G. Critics of Imperialism
    1. J. A. Hobson (1858–1940) 
    2. Marxist Critics
    3. Joseph Conrad (1857–1924) 
    4. Other Criticisms 

IV. Responding to Western Imperialism
  A. The Pattern of Response
    1. A Variety of Initial Responses 
    2. Imperial Rule 
    3. Weaknesses of Imperial Rule 
  B. Empire in India
    1. The British East India Company 
    2. Direct British Rule
    3. British Women
    4. Improvements
    5. Rising Nationalism 
  C. The Example of Japan
    1. The Meiji Restoration (1867) 
    2. Meiji Goals
    3. Military and Political Goals
  D. Toward Revolution in China
    1. The Comeback of the Qing Dynasty (1860–1890) 
    2. The Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895) 
    3. The Hundred Days of Reform (1898) 
    4. The Boxer Rebellion 
    5. The End of the Qing Dynasty (1912)