Chapter 25

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CHAPTER 25: War and Revolution, 1914–1919
I. The Road to War
  A. Growing International Conflict
    1. Germany’s Great Power Status 
    2. The Alliance Systems
    3. The Anglo-German Antagonism
    4. First Moroccan Crisis (1905) 
    5. Triple Entente 
    6. The German Navy
    7. The Eve of War
  B. The Mood of 1914
    1. Militarism 
    2. Nationalism
    3. Promoting Nationalism 
  C. The Outbreak of War
    1. The Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand 
    2. The Balkan Powder-Keg  
    3. The Two Balkan Wars (1912, 1913) 
    4. The Road to War 
    5. The Schlieffen Plan 
    6. Popular Sentiment 

II. Waging Total War
  A. Stalemate and Slaughter on the Western Front
    1. The Road to Stalemate 
    2. Trench Warfare 
    3. The Battles of Verdun and the Somme (1916) 
  B. The Widening War
    1. German Victories and Occupation 
    2. Italian and Ottoman Entry
    3. British Defeats and Successes
    4. The Colonial Theater
    5. American Intervention

III. The Home Front
  A. Mobilizing for Total War
    1. Governmental Management 
    2. A Planned Economy 
    3. Military Dictatorship 
  B. The Social Impact
    1. Labor Shortage 
    2. Labor Unions 
    3. Women Workers 
    4. Greater Social Equality 
  C. Growing Political Tensions
    1. Propaganda
    2. Strains in the Allied Powers 
    3. Strains in the Central Powers 

IV. The Russian Revolution
  A. The Fall of Imperial Russia
    1. Temporary Unity
    2. Problems with the Russian War Effort
    3. Weak Leadership
    4. The February Revolution 
  B. The Provisional Government
    1. Reforms 
    2. Petrograd Soviet   
    3. The Failed Summer Offensive (1917) 
  C. Lenin and the Bolshevik Revolution
    1. Background 
    2. Lenin’s Ideas 
    3. Bolsheviks vs. Mensheviks
    4. Wartime Activities 
  D. Trotsky and the Seizure of Power
    1. Increased Popular Support 
    2. Trotsky’s Role 
    3. Reasons for the Bolshevik Success
  E. Dictatorship and Civil War
    1. Consolidating Power 
    2. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk 
    3. The Whites 
    4. Red Victory 
    5. War Communism and the Red Terror

V. The Peace Settlement
  A. The End of the War
    1. Second Battle of the Marne 
    2. Shouldering the Blame 
    3. The Collapse of the German Empire 
  B. Revolution in Austria-Hungary and Germany
    1. The Break-up of Austria-Hungary
    2. The Aborted German Revolution
    3. The Spartacist Uprising (January 1919) 
    4. The Outcome 
  C. The Treaty of Versailles
    1. Treaty of Versailles
    2. The Fourteen Points
    3. Disagreements over Germany
    4. The Peace Terms
    5. The Flawed Peace 
  D. The Peace Settlement in the Middle East
    1. The Sykes-Picot Agreement (1916)  
    2. Balfour Declaration (1917) 
    3. The Arab Response 
    4. The Creation of Turkey 
  E. The Human Costs of the War
    1. Casualties 
    2. Commemorations
    3. Veterans 
    4. Right-Wing Radicalization