Chapter 27
Step One—Read the Chapter and Take Notes As You Go
This outline reflects the major headings and subheadings in this chapter of your textbook. Use it to take notes as you read each section of the chapter. In your notes, try to restate the main idea of each section.

CHAPTER 27: Dictatorships and the Second World War, 1919–1945
I. Authoritarian States
  A. Conservative Authoritarianism and Radical Totalitarian Dictatorships
    1. Conservative Authoritarianism
    2. Totalitarianism
    3. Characteristics of Communist and Fascist Dictatorships
  B. Communism and Fascism
    1. Societal Visions
    2. Race and Eugenics
    3. Mutual Enmity

II. Stalin's Soviet Union
  A. From Lenin to Stalin (1879–1953)
    1. The Five-Year Plan
    2. The New Economy Policy (NEP)
    3. Lenin’s Succession
    4. Stalin’s Triumph
  B. The Five-Year Plans
    1. The First Five-Year Plan
    2. Collectivization and the Kulaks
    3. The Cost of Collectivization
    4. Industrialization
  C. Life and Culture in Soviet Society
    1. Daily Life
    2. Personal Advancement
    3. Women’s Roles
    4. Politicized Culture
  D. Stalinist Terror and the Great Purges
    1. The Kirov Murder 
    2. The Great Purges
    3. The Purges’ Mysterious Origins

III. Mussolini and Fascism in Italy
  A. The Seizure of Power
    1. The Weaknesses of Liberal Italy
    2. The Postwar Crisis
    3. Benito Mussolini (1883–1945)
    4. The Seizure of Power
  B. The Regime in Action
    1. Seeming Moderation
    2. The Matteotti Murder and its Aftermath
    3. Popular Support
    4. The Lateran Agreement (1929)
    5. Characteristics of Fascist Italy

IV. Hitler and Nazism in Germany
  A. The Roots of National Socialism
    1. National Socialism
    2. The Origins of Hitler’s Worldview (1889–1945)
    3. The Impact of WWI
    4. The Nazi Party
    5. The Beer Hall Putsch
  B. Hitler's Road to Power
    1. Mein Kampf (My Struggle)
    2. The Rise of National Socialism
    3. The Nazi Seizure of Power
  C. State and Society in Nazi Germany
    1. Consolidating Power
    2. The SA Purge
    3. “Coordination”
    4. The Racial State
    5. The Nuremberg Laws (1935)
    6. Kristallnacht (1938)
  D. Popular Support for National Socialism
    1. Economic Recovery
    2. The Volksgemeinschaft (People’s Community)
    3. German Women
    4. Opponents
  E. Aggression and Appeasement
    1. Aggressive Actions 
    2. Appeasement
    3. The Munich Conference
    4. The Hitler-Stalin Pact

V. The Second World War
  A. German Victories in Europe
    1. 1939
    2. 1940
    3. 1941
  B. Europe Under Nazi Occupation
    1. The New Order 
    2. Occupation Policies
    3. The War of Annihilation
    4. Resistance
    5. German Response
  C. The Holocaust
    1. The Holocaust
    2. Euthanasia
    3. Ghettos and Death Squads
    4. The Final Solution
    5. Perpetrators and Motivations
  D. Japanese Empire and the War in the Pacific
    1. Racial-Imperial Ambitions
    2. The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
    3. The Japanese Offensives
  E. The "Hinge of Fate"
    1. The Grand Alliance
    2. Military Resources
    3. Allied Victories
  F. Allied Victory
    1. Increased German War Production
    2. The Anglo-American Invasion
    3. The Soviet Invasion
    4. The War in the Pacific