A History of Western Society Since 1300 for the AP® Course

Twelfth Edition

Publication Date: December 16, 2016

Hardcover ISBN: 9781319035983

Pages: 912

The market-leading AP® text brings European history to life

This market-leading AP® Euro text has been long praised by instructors and students alike for its readability and attention to everyday life. Now, this twelfth edition also addresses unique aspects of the AP® history redesigns.

A new part structure and “Thinking Like a Historian” feature...

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ISBN: 9781319514358
A History of Western Society Since 1300 for the AP® Course


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ISBN: 9781319035983
A History of Western Society Since 1300 for the AP® Course


Note: This is an abbreviated version of the full A History of Western Society textbook. Beginning in the year 1300 C.E., this version starts at Chapter 11 and page 322.
PERIOD ONE From Renaissance to Early Modern
c. 1450 to c. 1648
11 The Later Middle Ages 1300–1450
Prelude to Disaster
Climate Change and Famine • Social Consequences
The Black Death
Pathology • Spread of the Disease • Care of the Sick • Economic, Religious, and Cultural Effects
Evaluating the Evidence 11.1 Dance of Death
The Hundred Years’ War
Causes • English Successes • Joan of Arc and France’s Victory • Aftermath
Evaluating the Evidence 11.2 The Trial of Joan of Arc
Challenges to the Church
The Babylonian Captivity and Great Schism • Critiques, Divisions, and Councils • Lay Piety and Mysticism
Social Unrest in a Changing Society
Peasant Revolts • Urban Conflicts • Sex in the City • Fur- Collar Crime • Ethnic Tensions and Restrictions • Literacy and Vernacular Literature
Evaluating the Evidence 11.3 Christine de Pizan, Advice to the Wives of Artisans
Mapping the Past The Course of the Black Death in Fourteenth- Century Europe
Living in the Past Treating the Plague
Individuals in Society Meister Eckhart
Thinking Like a Historian Popular Revolts in the Late Middle Ages
12 European Society in the Age of the Renaissance 1350–1550
Wealth and Power in Renaissance Italy
Trade and Prosperity • Communes and Republics of Northern Italy • City-States and the Balance of Power
Evaluating the Evidence 12.1 A Sermon of Savonarola
Intellectual Change
Humanism • Education • Political Thought • Christian Humanism • The Printed Word
Evaluating the Evidence 12.2 Thomas More, Utopia
Art and the Artist
Patronage and Power • Changing Artistic Styles • The Renaissance Artist
Social Hierarchies
Race and Slavery • Wealth and the Nobility • Gender Roles
Politics and the State in Western Europe
France • England • Spain
Evaluating the Evidence 12.3 A Gold Coin of Ferdinand and Isabella
Thinking Like a Historian Humanist Learning
Mapping the Past The Growth of Printing in Europe, 1448–1552
Individuals in Society Leonardo da Vinci
Living in the Past Male Clothing and Masculinity
13 Reformations and Religious Wars 1500–1600
The Early Reformation
The Christian Church in the Early Sixteenth Century • Martin Luther • Protestant Thought • The Appeal of Protestant Ideas • The Radical Reformation and the German Peasants’ War • Marriage, Sexuality, and the Role of Women
Evaluating the Evidence 13.1 Martin Luther, On Christian Liberty
Evaluating the Evidence 13.2 Domestic Scene
The Reformation and German Politics
The Rise of the Habsburg Dynasty • Religious Wars in Switzerland and Germany
The Spread of Protestant Ideas
Scandinavia • Henry VIII and the Reformation in England • Upholding Protestantism in England • Calvinism • The Reformation in Eastern Europe
Evaluating the Evidence 13.3 Elizabethan Injunctions About Religion
The Catholic Reformation
Papal Reform and the Council of Trent • New and Reformed Religious Orders
Religious Violence
French Religious Wars • The Netherlands Under Charles V • The Great European Witch-Hunt
Individuals in Society Anna Jansz of Rotterdam
Living in the Past Uses of Art in the Reformation
Thinking Like a Historian Social Discipline in the Reformation
Mapping the Past Religious Divisions in Europe, ca. 1555
14 European Exploration and Conquest 1450–1650
World Contacts Before Columbus
The Trade World of the Indian Ocean • The Trading States of Africa • The Ottoman and Persian Empires • Genoese and Venetian Middlemen
The European Voyages of Discovery
Causes of European Expansion • Technology and the Rise of Exploration • The Portuguese Overseas Empire • Spain’s Voyages to the Americas • Spain “Discovers” the Pacific • Early Exploration by Northern European Powers
Evaluating the Evidence 14.1 Columbus Describes His First Voyage
Conquest and Settlement
Spanish Conquest of the Aztec and Inca Empires • Portuguese Brazil • Colonial Empires of England and France • Colonial Administration
The Era of Global Contact
Indigenous Population Loss and Economic Exploitation • Life in the Colonies • The Columbian Exchange • Sugar and Slavery • Spanish Silver and Its Economic Effects • The Birth of the Global Economy
Evaluating the Evidence 14.2 Interpreting the Spread of Disease Among Natives
Changing Attitudes and Beliefs
Religious Conversion • European Debates About Indigenous Peoples • New Ideas About Race • Michel de Montaigne and Cultural Curiosity • William Shakespeare and His Influence
Evaluating the Evidence 14.3 Tenochtitlan Leaders Respond to Spanish Missionaries
Mapping the Past Overseas Exploration and Conquest in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries
Thinking Like a Historian Who Was Doña Marina?
Living in the Past Foods of the Columbian Exchange
Individuals in Society Juan de Pareja

PERIOD TWO Early Modern Transformations
c. 1648 to c. 1815
15 Absolutism and Constitutionalism ca. 1589–1725
Seventeenth-Century Crisis and Rebuilding
The Social Order and Peasant Life • Famine and Economic Crisis • The Thirty Years’ War • Achievements in State- Building • Warfare and the Growth of Army Size • Popular Political Action
Absolutism in France and Spain
The Foundations of French Absolutism • Louis XIV and Absolutism • Life at Versailles • The French Economic Policy of Mercantilism • Louis XIV’s Wars • The Decline of Absolutist Spain in the Seventeenth Century
Evaluating the Evidence 15.1 Letter from Versailles
Absolutism in Austria and Prussia
The Return of Serfdom in the East • The Austrian Habsburgs • Prussia in the Seventeenth Century • The Consolidation of Prussian Absolutism
The Development of Russia and the Ottoman Empire
Mongol Rule in Russia and the Rise of Moscow • Building the Russian Empire • The Reforms of Peter the Great • The Ottoman Empire
Evaluating the Evidence 15.2 Peter the Great and Foreign Experts
Constitutional Rule in England and the Dutch
Religious Divides and Civil War • The Puritan Protectorate • The Restoration of the English Monarchy • Constitutional Monarchy • The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century • Baroque Art and Music
Evaluating the Evidence 15.3 John Locke, Two Treatises of Government
Thinking Like a Historian What Was Absolutism?
Living in the Past The Absolutist Palace
Mapping the Past Europe After the Peace of Utrecht, 1715
Individuals in Society Hürrem
16 Toward a New Worldview
The Scientific Revolution
Why Europe? • Scientific Thought to 1500 • The Copernican Hypothesis • Brahe, Kepler, and Galileo: Proving Copernicus Right • Newton’s Synthesis • Natural History and Empire • Magic and Alchemy
Evaluating the Evidence 16.1 Galileo Galilei, The Sidereal Messenger
Important Changes in Scientific Thinking and
The Methods of Science: Bacon and Descartes • Medicine, the Body, and Chemistry • Science and Religion • Science and Society
Evaluating the Evidence 16.2 “An Account of a Particular Species of Cocoon”
The Rise and Spread of Enlightenment Thought
The Early Enlightenment • The Influence of the Philosophes • Enlightenment Movements Across Europe
The Social Life of the Enlightenment
Global Contacts • Enlightenment Debates About Race • Women and the Enlightenment • Urban Culture and Life in the Public Sphere
Evaluating the Evidence 16.3 Denis Diderot, “Supplement to Bougainville’s Voyage”
Enlightened Absolutism
Frederick the Great of Prussia • Catherine the Great of Russia • The Austrian Habsburgs • Jewish Life and the Limits of Enlightened Absolutism
Thinking Like a Historian The Enlightenment Debate on Religious Tolerance
Living in the Past Coffeehouse Culture
Mapping the Past The Partition of Poland, 1772–1795
Individuals in Society Moses Mendelssohn and the Jewish Enlightenment
17 The Expansion of Europe
Working the Land
The Legacy of the Open-Field System • New Methods of Agriculture • The Leadership of the Low Countries and England
Evaluating the Evidence 17.1 Arthur Young on the Benefits of Enclosure
The Beginning of the Population Explosion
Long-Standing Obstacles to Population Growth • The New Pattern of the Eighteenth Century
The Growth of Rural Industry
The Putting-Out System • The Lives of Rural Textile Workers • The Industrious Revolution
The Debate over Urban Guilds
Urban Guilds • Adam Smith and Economic Liberalism
Evaluating the Evidence 17.2 Adam Smith on the Division of Labor
The Atlantic World and Global Trade
Mercantilism and Colonial Competition • The Atlantic Economy • The Atlantic Slave Trade • Identities and Communities of the Atlantic World • The Atlantic Enlightenment • Trade and Empire in Asia and the Pacific
Evaluating the Evidence 17.3 Olaudah Equiano’s Economic Arguments for Ending Slavery
Mapping the Past Industry and Population in Eighteenth- Century Europe
Thinking Like a Historian Rural Industry: Progress or Exploitation?
Living in the Past The Remaking of London
Individuals in Society Rebecca Protten
18 Life in the Era of Expansion
1650–1800 574
Marriage and the Family
Late Marriage and Nuclear Families • Work Away from Home • Premarital Sex and Community Controls • New Patterns of Marriage and Illegitimacy • Sex on the Margins of Society
Children and Education
Child Care and Nursing • Foundlings and Infanticide • Attitudes Toward Children • The Spread of Elementary Schools
Evaluating the Evidence 18.1 Parisian Boyhood
Popular Culture and Consumerism
Popular Literature • Leisure and Recreation • New Foods and Appetites • Toward a Consumer Society
Evaluating the Evidence 18.2 A Day in the Life of Paris
Religious Authority and Beliefs
Church Hierarchy • Protestant Revival • Catholic Piety • Marginal Beliefs and Practices
Evaluating the Evidence 18.3 Advice to Methodists
Medical Practice
Faith Healing and General Practice • Improvements in Surgery • Midwifery • The Conquest of Smallpox
Mapping the Past Literacy in France, ca. 1789
The Past Living Now The Commercialization of Sports
Individuals in Society Rose Bertin, “Minister of Fashion”
Thinking Like a Historian A New Subjectivity
Living in the Past Improvements in Childbirth
19 Revolutions in Politics
1775–1815 610
Background to Revolution
Social Change • Growing Demands for Liberty and Equality • The Seven Years’ War
The American Revolutionary Era, 1775–1789
The Origins of the Revolution • Independence from Britain • Framing the Constitution • Limitations of Liberty and Equality
Evaluating the Evidence 19.1 Abigail Adams, “Remember the Ladies”
Revolution in France, 1789–1791
Breakdown of the Old Order • The Formation of the National Assembly • Popular Uprising and the Rights of Man • A Constitutional Monarchy and Its Challenges
Evaluating the Evidence 19.2 Abbé Sieyès, What Is the Third Estate?
World War and Republican France, 1791–1799
The International Response • The Second Revolution and the New Republic • Total War and the Terror • The Thermidorian Reaction and the Directory
Evaluating the Evidence 19.3 Contrasting Visions of the Sans-Culottes
The Napoleonic Era, 1799–1815
Napoleon’s Rule of France • Napoleon’s Expansion in Europe • The Grand Empire and Its End
The Haitian Revolution, 1791–1804
Revolutionary Aspirations in Saint-Domingue • The Outbreak of Revolt • The War of Haitian Independence
Thinking Like a Historian The Rights of Which Men?
Living in the Past A Revolution of Culture and Daily Life
Mapping the Past Napoleonic Europe in 1812
Individuals in Society Toussaint L’Ouverture

PERIOD THREE The Long Nineteenth Century
c. 1815 to c. 1914
20 The Revolution in Energy and Industry
ca. 1780–1850
The Industrial Revolution in Britain
Why Britain? • Technological Innovations and Early Factories • The Steam Engine Breakthrough • Steam- Powered Transportation • Industry and Population
Industrialization in Europe and the World
National and International Variations • Industrialization in Continental Europe • Agents of Industrialization • The Global Picture
New Patterns of Working and Living
Work in Early Factories • Working Families and Children • The New Sexual Division of Labor • Living Standards of the Working Class
Evaluating the Evidence 20.1 Debate over Child Labor Laws
Evaluating the Evidence 20.2 The Testimony of Young Mine Workers
Relations Between Capital and Labor
The New Class of Factory Owners • Responses to Industrialization • The Early British Labor Movement • The Impact of Slavery
Evaluating the Evidence 20.3 Advice for Middle-Class Women
Individuals in Society Samuel Crompton
Living in the Past The Steam Age
Mapping the Past Continental Industrialization, ca. 1850
Thinking Like a Historian Making the Industrialized Worker
21 Ideologies and Upheavals
The Aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars
The European Balance of Power • Metternich and Conservatism • Repressing the Revolutionary Spirit • Limits to Conservative Power and Revolution in South America
Evaluating the Evidence 21.1 The Karlsbad Decrees: Conservative Reaction in the German Confederation
The Spread of Radical Ideas
Liberalism and the Middle Class • The Growing Appeal of Nationalism • The Foundations of Modern Socialism • The Birth of Marxist Socialism
The Romantic Movement
The Tenets of Romanticism • Romantic Literature • Romanticism in Art and Music
Evaluating the Evidence 21.2 English Romantic
Evaluating the Evidence 21.3 Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, Children’s Stories and Household Tales
Reforms and Revolutions Before 1848
National Liberation in Greece • Liberal Reform in Great Britain • Ireland and the Great Famine • The Revolution of 1830 in France
The Revolutions of 1848
A Democratic Republic in France • Revolution and Reaction in the Austrian Empire • Prussia, the German Confederation, and the Frankfurt National Parliament
Mapping the Past Europe in 1815
Thinking Like a Historian The Republican Spirit in 1848
Individuals in Society Germaine de Staël
Living in the Past Revolutionary Experiences in 1848
22 Life in the Emerging Urban Society
Taming the City
Industry and the Growth of Cities • The Advent of the Public Health Movement • The Bacterial Revolution • Improvements in Urban Planning • Public Transportation
Evaluating the Evidence 22.1 First Impressions of the World’s Biggest City
Rich and Poor and Those in Between
The Distribution of Income • The People and Occupations of the Middle Classes • Middle-Class Culture and Values • The People and Occupations of the Working Classes • Working- Class Leisure and Religion
Changing Family Lifestyles
Middle-Class Marriage and Courtship Rituals • Middle- and Working-Class Sexuality • Prostitution • Separate Spheres
and the Importance of Homemaking • Child Rearing • The Feminist Movement
Evaluating the Evidence 22.2 Stephan Zweig on Middle- Class Youth and Sexuality
Science and Thought
The Triumph of Science in Industry • Darwin and Natural Selection • The Modern University and the Social Sciences • Realism in Art and Literature
Evaluating the Evidence 22.3 Émile Zola and Realism in Literature
Mapping the Past European Cities of 100,000 or More, 1800–1900
The Past Living Now Modern Sewage Systems
Living in the Past Nineteenth-Century Women’s Fashion
Individuals in Society Franziska Tiburtius
Thinking Like a Historian The Promise of Electricity
23 The Age of Nationalism
Napoleon III in France
France’s Second Republic • Napoleon III’s Second Empire
Nation Building in Italy, Germany, and the United
Italy to 1850 • Cavour and Garibaldi in Italy • Growing Austro-Prussian Rivalry • Bismarck and the Austro-Prussian War • Taming the German Parliament • The Franco-Prussian War • Slavery and Nation Building in the United States
Evaluating the Evidence 23.1 The Struggle for the Italian Nation
The Modernization of Russia and the Ottoman
The “Great Reforms” in Russia • The Russian Revolution of 1905 • Reform and Readjustment in the Ottoman Empire
Evaluating the Evidence 23.2 Eyewitness Accounts of Bloody Sunday
The Responsive National State, 1871–1914
The German Empire • Republican France • Great Britain and Ireland • The Austro-Hungarian Empire
The Nation and the People
Making National Citizens • Nationalism and Racism • Jewish Emancipation and Modern Anti-Semitism
Marxism and the Socialist Movement
The Socialist International • Labor Unions and Marxist Revisionism
Evaluating the Evidence 23.3 Adelheid Popp, the Making of a Socialist
Mapping the Past The Unification of Germany, 1864–1871
Living in the Past Peasant Life in Post-Reform Russia
Thinking Like a Historian How to Build a Nation
Individuals in Society Theodor Herzl
24 The West and the World
Industrialization and the World Economy
The Rise of Global Inequality • The World Market • The Opening of China • Japan and the United States • Western Penetration of Egypt
Global Migration Around 1900
The Pressure of Population • European Emigration • Asian Emigration
Evaluating the Evidence 24.1 Nativism in the United States 805
Western Imperialism, 1880–1914
The European Presence in Africa Before 1880 • The Scramble for Africa After 1880 • Imperialism in Asia • Causes of the New Imperialism • A “Civilizing Mission” • Orientalism • Critics of Imperialism
Evaluating the Evidence 24.2 The White Man’s Burden
Evaluating the Evidence 24.3 The Brown Man’s Burden
Responding to Western Imperialism
The Pattern of Response • Empire in India • The Example of Japan • Toward Revolution in China
Living in the Past The Immigrant Experience
Mapping the Past The Partition of Africa
Individuals in Society Cecil Rhodes
Thinking Like a Historian Women and Empire
PERIOD FOUR The Twentieth Century and Beyond
c. 1914 to the present
25 War and Revolution
The Road to War
Growing International Conflict • The Mood of 1914 • The Outbreak of War
Waging Total War
Stalemate and Slaughter on the Western Front • The Widening War
Evaluating the Evidence 25.1 Poetry in the Trenches
The Home Front
Mobilizing for Total War • The Social Impact • Growing Political Tensions
Evaluating the Evidence 25.2 Wartime Propaganda Posters
The Russian Revolution
The Fall of Imperial Russia • The Provisional Government • Lenin and the Bolshevik Revolution • Trotsky and the Seizure of Power • Dictatorship and Civil War
Evaluating the Evidence 25.3 Peace, Land, and Bread for the Russian People
The Peace Settlement
The End of the War • Revolution in Austria-Hungary and Germany • The Treaty of Versailles • The Peace Settlement in the Middle East • The Human Costs of the War
Living in the Past Life and Death on the Western Front
Individuals in Society Vera Brittain
Mapping the Past Territorial Changes After World War I
Thinking Like a Historian The Partition of the Ottoman Empire and the Mandate System
26 The Age of Anxiety
Uncertainty in Modern Thought
Modern Philosophy • The Revival of Christianity • The New Physics • Freudian Psychology
Evaluating the Evidence 26.1 Friedrich Nietzsche Pronounces the Death of God
Modernism in Architecture, Art, Literature, and
Architecture and Design • New Artistic Movements • Twentieth-Century Literature • Modern Music
Evaluating the Evidence 26.2 The Futurist Manifesto
An Emerging Consumer Society
Mass Culture • The Appeal of Cinema • The Arrival of Radio
The Search for Peace and Political Stability
Germany and the Western Powers • Hope in Foreign Affairs • Hope in Democratic Government
The Great Depression, 1929–1939
The Economic Crisis • Mass Unemployment • The New Deal in the United States • The Scandinavian Response to the Depression • Recovery and Reform in Britain and France
Evaluating the Evidence 26.3 George Orwell on Life on the Dole
Living in the Past Modern Design for Everyday Use
Thinking Like a Historian The Radio Age
Individuals in Society Gustav Stresemann
Mapping the Past The Great Depression in the United States and Europe, 1929–1939
27 Dictatorships and the Second World War
Authoritarian States
Conservative Authoritarianism and Radical Totalitarian Dictatorships • Communism and Fascism
Stalin’s Soviet Union
From Lenin to Stalin • The Five-Year Plans • Life and Culture in Soviet Society • Stalinist Terror and the Great Purges
Evaluating the Evidence 27.1 Stalin Justifies the Five-Year Plan
Evaluating the Evidence 27.2 Famine and Recovery on a Soviet Collective Farm
Mussolini and Fascism in Italy
The Seizure of Power • The Regime in Action
Hitler and Nazism in Germany
The Roots of National Socialism • Hitler’s Road to Power • State and Society in Nazi Germany • Popular Support for National Socialism • Aggression and Appeasement
The Second World War
German Victories in Europe • Europe Under Nazi Occupation • The Holocaust • Japanese Empire and the War in the Pacific • The “Hinge of Fate” • Allied Victory
Evaluating the Evidence 27.3 Everyday Life in the London Blitz
Individuals in Society Primo Levi
Thinking Like a Historian Normalizing Eugenics and “Racial Hygiene” in Nazi Germany
Living in the Past Nazi Propaganda and Consumer Goods
Mapping the Past World War II in Europe and Africa, 1939–1945
28 Cold War Conflict and Consensus
Postwar Europe and the Origins of the Cold War
The Legacies of the Second World War • The Peace Settlement and Cold War Origins • West Versus East • Big Science in the Nuclear Age
The Western Renaissance/Recovery in Western Europe
The Search for Political and Social Consensus • Toward European Unity • The Consumer Revolution
Evaluating the Evidence 28.1 Western European Recovery and the Promise of Prosperity
Developments in the Soviet Union and the East Bloc
Postwar Life in the East Bloc • Reform and De-Stalinization • Foreign Policy and Domestic Rebellion • The Limits of Reform
Evaluating the Evidence 28.2 The Nixon-Khrushchev “Kitchen Debate”
The End of Empires
Decolonization and the Global Cold War • The Struggle for Power in Asia • Independence and Conflict in the Middle East • Decolonization in Africa
Evaluating the Evidence 28.3 Frantz Fanon on Violence, Decolonization, and Human Dignity
Postwar Social Transformations
Changing Class Structures • Patterns of Postwar Migration • New Roles for Women • Youth Culture and the Generation Gap
Mapping the Past The Aftermath of World War II in Europe, ca. 1945–1950
Living in the Past A Model Socialist Steel Town
Thinking Like a Historian Violence and the Algerian War
Individuals in Society Armando Rodrigues
29 Challenging the Postwar Order
Reform and Protest in the 1960s
Cold War Tensions Thaw • The Affluent Society • The Counterculture Movement • The United States and Vietnam • Student Revolts and 1968 • The 1960s in the East Bloc
Evaluating the Evidence 29.1 Human Rights Under the Helsinki Accords
Crisis and Change in Western Europe
Economic Crisis and Hardship • The New Conservatism • Challenges and Victories for Women • The Rise of the Environmental Movement • Separatism and Right-Wing Extremism
Evaluating the Evidence 29.2 Simone de Beauvoir’s Feminist Critique of Marriage
The Decline of “Developed Socialism”
State and Society in the East Bloc • Dissent in Czechoslovakia and Poland • From Détente Back to Cold War • Gorbachev’s Reforms in the Soviet Union
Evaluating the Evidence 29.3 Dissent in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
The Revolutions of 1989
The Collapse of Communism in the East Bloc • German Unification and the End of the Cold War • The Disintegration of the Soviet Union
Living in the Past The Supermarket Revolution
Individuals in Society Margaret Thatcher
Thinking Like a Historian The New Environmentalism
Mapping the Past Democratic Movements in Eastern Europe, 1989
30 Life in an Age of Globalization
1990 to the Present
Reshaping the Soviet Union and the Former East Bloc
Economic Shock Therapy in Russia • Russian Revival Under Vladimir Putin • Coping with Change in the Former East Bloc • Tragedy in Yugoslavia • Instability in the Former Soviet Republics
Evaluating the Evidence 30.1 President Putin on Global Security
The New Global System
The Global Economy • The New European Union • Supranational Organizations • The Human Side of Globalization • Life in the Digital Age
Ethnic Diversity in Contemporary Europe
The Prospect of Population Decline • Changing Immigration Flows • Toward a Multicultural Continent • Europe and Its
Muslim Population
Evaluating the Evidence 30.2 William Pfaff, Will the French Riots Change Anything?
Confronting Long-Term Challenges
Growing Strains in U.S.-European Relations • Turmoil in the Muslim World • The Global Recession and the Viability of the Eurozone • Dependence on Fossil Fuels • Climate Change and Environmental Degradation • Promoting Human Rights
Evaluating the Evidence 30.3 The Thessaloniki Programme
Mapping the Past The European Union, 2016
Living in the Past The Euro
Individuals in Society Edward Snowden
Thinking Like a Historian The Conservative Reaction to Immigration and Islamist Terrorism
The Past Living Now Remembering the Holocaust