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# Calculus

## Fourth Edition| ©2019 Jon Rogawski; Colin Adams; Robert Franzosa

The author's goal for the book is that it's clearly written, could be read by a calculus student and would motivate them to engage in the material and learn more. Moreover, to create a text in which exposition, graphics, and layout would work together to enhance all facets of a student’s calculus...

The author's goal for the book is that it's clearly written, could be read by a calculus student and would motivate them to engage in the material and learn more. Moreover, to create a text in which exposition, graphics, and layout would work together to enhance all facets of a student’s calculus experience. They paid special attention to certain aspects of the text:

1. Clear, accessible exposition that anticipates and addresses student difficulties.

2. Layout and figures that communicate the flow of ideas.

3. Highlighted features that emphasize concepts and mathematical reasoning including Conceptual Insight, Graphical Insight, Assumptions Matter, Reminder, and Historical Perspective.

4. A rich collection of examples and exercises of graduated difficulty that teach basic skills as well as problem-solving techniques, reinforce conceptual understanding, and motivate calculus through interesting applications. Each section also contains exercises that develop additional insights and challenge students to further develop their skills.

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The author's goal for the book is that it's clearly written, could be read by a calculus student and would motivate them to engage in the material and learn more. Moreover, to create a text in which exposition, graphics, and layout would work together to enhance all facets of a student’s calculus experience. They paid special attention to certain aspects of the text:

1. Clear, accessible exposition that anticipates and addresses student difficulties.

2. Layout and figures that communicate the flow of ideas.

3. Highlighted features that emphasize concepts and mathematical reasoning including Conceptual Insight, Graphical Insight, Assumptions Matter, Reminder, and Historical Perspective.

4. A rich collection of examples and exercises of graduated difficulty that teach basic skills as well as problem-solving techniques, reinforce conceptual understanding, and motivate calculus through interesting applications. Each section also contains exercises that develop additional insights and challenge students to further develop their skills.

Features

**Conceptual Insights** encourage students to develop a conceptual understanding of calculus by explaining important ideas clearly but informally.

**Graphical Insights** enhance students’ visual understanding by making the crucial connections between graphical properties and the underlying concepts.

**Reminders** are margin notes that link the current discussion to important concepts introduced earlier in the text to give students a quick review and make connections with related ideas.

**Caution** notes warn students of common pitfalls they may encounter in understanding the material. Examples work through problems to instruct students on concepts. They contain full, stepped-out solutions for each part.

**Historical Perspectives** are brief vignettes that place key discoveries and conceptual advances in their historical context. They give students a glimpse into some of the accomplishments of great mathematicians and an appreciation for their significance.

**Assumptions Matter** uses short explanations and well-chosen counterexamples to help students appreciate why hypotheses are needed in theorems.

**Section Summaries** summarize a section’s key points in a concise and useful way and emphasize for students what is most important in each section.

**Section Exercise Sets** offer a comprehensive set of exercises closely coordinated with the text. These exercises vary in difficulty from routine, to moderate, to more challenging.

**Chapter Review Exercises** offer a comprehensive set of exercises closely coordinated with the chapter material to provide additional problems for self-study or assignments.

New to This Edition

General themes of the revision include the following (a detailed list of changes is also available):

- Rewrite portions to increase readability without reducing level of mathematical rigor. This includes increasing clarity, improving organization, and building consistency.
- Add applications, particularly in life science and earth science to broaden the scientific fields represented in the book. In particular, there are a number of new examples and exercises in climate science, an area that is currently drawing a lot of interest in the scientific community.
- Add conceptual and graphical insights to assist student understanding in places where pitfalls and confusion often occurs.
- Add diversity to the Historical Perspectives and historical marginal pieces.
- Maintain threads throughout the book by previewing topics that come up later and revisiting topics that have been presented before.
- Expand the perspective on curve sketching--beyond just sketching a curve using calculus tools--to include analyzing given curves using calculus tools. (This is an addition of some elements of the “reform” perspective on calculus instruction.)
- “Tighten” the presentation of the mathematics in the text, improving rigor (without increasing the overall level of formality). This includes correcting previous errors and omissions.

**
Calculus**

Fourth Edition| ©2019

Jon Rogawski; Colin Adams; Robert Franzosa

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**Calculus**

Fourth Edition| 2019

Jon Rogawski; Colin Adams; Robert Franzosa

## Table of Contents

**Chapter 1: Precalculus Review**

1.1 Real Numbers, Functions, and Graphs

1.2 Linear and Quadratic Functions

1.3 The Basic Classes of Functions

1.4 Trigonometric Functions

1.5 Technology: Calculators and Computers

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 2: Limits**

2.1 The Limit Idea: Instantaneous Velocity and Tangent Lines

2.2 Investigating Limits

2.3 Basic Limit Laws

2.4 Limits and Continuity

2.5 Indeterminate Forms

2.6 The Squeeze Theorem and Trigonometric Limits

2.7 Limits at Infinity

2.8 The Intermediate Value Theorem

2.9 The Formal Definition of a Limit

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 3: Differentiation**

3.1 Definition of the Derivative

3.2 The Derivative as a Function

3.3 Product and Quotient Rules

3.4 Rates of Change

3.5 Higher Derivatives

3.6 Trigonometric Functions

3.7 The Chain Rule

3.8 Implicit Differentiation

3.9 Related Rates

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 4: Applications of the Derivative**

4.1 Linear Approximation and Applications

4.2 Extreme Values

4.3 The Mean Value Theorem and Monotonicity

4.4 The Second Derivative and Concavity

4.5 Analyzing and Sketching Graphs of Functions

4.6 Applied Optimization

4.7 Newton’s Method

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 5: Integration**

5.1 Approximating and Computing Area

5.2 The Definite Integral

5.3 The Indefinite Integral

5.4 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, Part I

5.5 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, Part II

5.6 Net Change as the Integral of a Rate of Change

5.7 The Substitution Method

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 6: Applications of the Integral**

6.1 Area Between Two Curves

6.2 Setting Up Integrals: Volume, Density, Average Value

6.3 Volumes of Revolution: Disks and Washers

6.4 Volumes of Revolution: Cylindrical Shells

6.5 Work and Energy

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 7: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions**

7.1 The Derivative of f (x) = bx and the Number e

7.2 Inverse Functions

7.3 Logarithmic Functions and Their Derivatives

7.4 Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

7.5 L’Hopital’s Rule

7.6 Inverse Trigonometric Functions

7.7 Hyperbolic Functions

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 8: Techniques of Integration**

8.1 Integration by Parts

8.2 Trigonometric Integrals

8.3 Trigonometric Substitution

8.4 Integrals Involving Hyperbolic and Inverse Hyperbolic Functions

8.5 The Method of Partial Fractions

8.6 Strategies for Integration

8.7 Improper Integrals

8.8 Numerical Integration

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 9: Further Applications of the Integral**

9.1 Probability and Integration

9.2 Arc Length and Surface Area

9.3 Fluid Pressure and Force

9.4 Center of Mass

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 10: Introduction to Differential Equations**

10.1 Solving Differential Equations

10.2 Models Involving y'=k(y-b)

10.3 Graphical and Numerical Methods

10.4 The Logistic Equation

10.5 First-Order Linear Equations

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 11: Infinite Series**

11.1 Sequences

11.2 Summing an Infinite Series

11.3 Convergence of Series with Positive Terms

11.4 Absolute and Conditional Convergence

11.5 The Ratio and Root Tests and Strategies for Choosing Tests

11.6 Power Series

11.7 Taylor Polynomials

11.8 Taylor Series

Chapter Review Exercises

Chapter 12: Parametric Equations, Polar Coordinates, and Conic Sections

12.1 Parametric Equations

12.2 Arc Length and Speed

12.3 Polar Coordinates

12.4 Area and Arc Length in Polar Coordinates

12.5 Conic Sections

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 13: Vector Geometry**

13.1 Vectors in the Plane

13.2 Three-Dimensional Space: Surfaces, Vectors, and Curves

13.3 Dot Product and the Angle Between Two Vectors

13.4 The Cross Product

13.5 Planes in 3-Space

13.6 A Survey of Quadric Surfaces

13.7 Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 14: Calculus of Vector-Valued Functions**

14.1 Vector-Valued Functions

14.2 Calculus of Vector-Valued Functions

14.3 Arc Length and Speed

14.4 Curvature

14.5 Motion in 3-Space

14.6 Planetary Motion According to Kepler and Newton

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 15: Differentiation in Several Variables**

15.1 Functions of Two or More Variables

15.2 Limits and Continuity in Several Variables

15.3 Partial Derivatives

15.4 Differentiability, Tangent Planes, and Linear Approximation

15.5 The Gradient and Directional Derivatives

15.6 Multivariable Calculus Chain Rules

15.7 Optimization in Several Variables

15.8 Lagrange Multipliers: Optimizing with a Constraint

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 16: Multiple Integration**

16.1 Integration in Two Variables

16.2 Double Integrals over More General Regions

16.3 Triple Integrals

16.4 Integration in Polar, Cylindrical, and Spherical Coordinates

16.5 Applications of Multiple Integrals

16.6 Change of Variables

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 17: Line and Surface Integrals**

17.1 Vector Fields

17.2 Line Integrals

17.3 Conservative Vector Fields

17.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals

17.5 Surface Integrals of Vector Fields

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 18: Fundamental Theorems of Vector Analysis**

18.1 Green’s Theorem

18.2 Stokes’ Theorem

18.3 Divergence Theorem

Chapter Review Exercises

**Appendices **A. The Language of Mathematics

B. Properties of Real Numbers

C. Induction and the Binomial Theorem

D. Additional Proofs

ANSWERS TO ODD-NUMBERED EXERCISES

REFERENCES

INDEX

Additional content can be accessed online at www.macmillanlearning.com/calculuset4e:

**Additional Proofs:**L’Hôpital’s Rule

Error Bounds for Numerical

Integration

Comparison Test for Improper

Integrals

**Additional Content:**Second-Order Differential

Equations

Complex Numbers

## Authors

### Jon Rogawski

**Jon Rogawski** received his undergraduate and master’s degrees in mathematics simultaneously from Yale University, and he earned his PhD in mathematics from Princeton University, where he studied under Robert Langlands. Before joining the Department of Mathematics at UCLA in 1986, where he was a full professor, he held teaching and visiting positions at the Institute for Advanced Study, the University of Bonn, and the University of Paris at Jussieu and Orsay.
Jon’s areas of interest were number theory, automorphic forms, and harmonic analysis on semisimple groups. He published numerous research articles in leading mathematics journals, including the research monograph Automorphic Representations of Unitary Groups in Three Variables (Princeton University Press). He was the recipient of a Sloan Fellowship and an editor of the Pacific Journal of Mathematics and the Transactions of the AMS.
As a successful teacher for more than 30 years, Jon Rogawski listened and learned much from his own students. These valuable lessons made an impact on his thinking, his writing, and his shaping of a calculus text. Sadly, Jon Rogawski passed away in September 2011. Jon’s commitment to presenting the beauty of calculus and the important role it plays in students’ understanding of the wider world is the legacy that lives on in each new edition of Calculus.

### Colin Adams

**Colin Adams ** is the Thomas T. Read professor of Mathematics at Williams College, where he has taught since 1985. Colin received his undergraduate degree from MIT and his PhD from the University of Wisconsin. His research is in the area of knot theory and low-dimensional topology. He has held various grants to support his research, and written numerous research articles.
Colin is the author or co-author of The Knot Book, How to Ace Calculus: The Streetwise Guide, How to Ace the Rest of Calculus: The Streetwise Guide, Riot at the Calc Exam and Other Mathematically Bent Stories, Why Knot?, Introduction to Topology: Pure and Applied, and Zombies & Calculus. He co-wrote and appears in the videos “The Great Pi vs. E Debate” and “Derivative vs. Integral: the Final Smackdown.”
He is a recipient of the Haimo National Distinguished Teaching Award from the Mathematical Association of America (MAA) in 1998, an MAA Polya Lecturer for 1998-2000, a Sigma Xi Distinguished Lecturer for 2000-2002, and the recipient of the Robert Foster Cherry Teaching Award in 2003. Colin has two children and one slightly crazy dog, who is great at providing the entertainment.

### Robert Franzosa

**Robert (Bob) Franzosa** is a professor of mathematics at the University of Maine where he has been on the faculty since 1983. Bob received a BS in mathematics from MIT in 1977 and a Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of Wisconsin in 1984. His research has been in dynamical systems and in applications of topology in geographic information systems. He has been involved in mathematics education outreach in the state of Maine for most of his career.
Bob is a co-author of Introduction to Topology: Pure and Applied and Algebraic Models in Our World. He was awarded the University of Maine’s Presidential Outstanding Teaching award in 2003. Bob is married, has two children, three step-children, and one recently-arrived grandson.

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**Calculus**

Fourth Edition| 2019

Jon Rogawski; Colin Adams; Robert Franzosa

## Related Titles

**Calculus**

Fourth Edition| 2019

Jon Rogawski; Colin Adams; Robert Franzosa

## Videos

Colin Adams' Calculus 3e Co-authorship Video

Colin Adams discusses how he became involved with co-authoring Calculus 3e.

Author Talk

Colin Adams' Various Calculus Books Video

Colin Adams describes his supplemental texts and new novel, Zombies & Calculus.

Author Talk

Colin Adams' knot theory Video

Colin Adams describes how he began working on Knot Theory.

Author Talk

Transitioning to Homework Video

Colin Adams describes how Calculus 3e helps students transition from class to homework.

Author Talk

Notation Video

Colin Adams explains important updates to the notation in Calculus 3e.

Author Talk

Minimizing Memorization Video

Colin Adams discusses his focus on concepts and minimizing memorization in Calculus 3e.

Author Talk

Understanding Formulas Video

Colin Adams talks about how the new edition helps students understand formulas.

Author Talk

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