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A History of Western Society, Combined Edition

Fourteenth Edition

Publication Date: May 15, 2024

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Pages: 1116

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The Combined Volume includes all chapters.

Volume 1 includes Chapters 1-16.

Volume 2 includes Chapters 14-30.

Since 1300 includes Chapters 11-30.



Maps, Figures, and Tables

Special Features


Chapter 1: Origins, to 1200 B.C.E.

What do we mean by "the West" and "Western civilization"?

      Describing the West

      What Is Civilization?

How did early human societies create new technologies and cultural forms?

      From the First Hominids to the Paleolithic Era


      Implications of Agriculture

      Trade and Cross-Cultural Connections

What kind of civilization did the Sumerians build in Mesopotamia?

      Environment and Mesopotamian Development

      The Invention of Writing and the First Schools

      Religion in Mesopotamia

      Sumerian Politics and Society

How did the Akkadian and Old Babylonian empires develop in Mesopotamia?

      The Akkadians and the Babylonians

      Life Under Hammurabi

      Cultural Exchange in the Fertile Crescent

How did the Egyptians establish a prosperous and long-lasting society?

      The Nile and the God-King

      Egyptian Religion

      Egyptian Society and Work

      Egyptian Family Life

      The Hyksos and New Kingdom Revival

      Conflict and Cooperation with the Hittites



Thinking Like a Historian: Addressing the Gods

Evaluating Written Evidence: Hammurabi’s Code on Marriage and Divorce

Viewpoints: Faulty Merchandise in Babylon and Egypt

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Egyptian Family Life

Individuals in Society: Hatshepsut


Chapter 2: Small Kingdoms and Mighty Empires in the Near East, 1200–510 B.C.E.

How did iron technology shape new states after 1200 B.C.E.?

      Iron Technology

      The Decline of Egypt and the Emergence of Kush

      The Rise of Phoenicia

How did the Hebrews create an enduring religious tradition?

      The Hebrew State

      The Jewish Religion

      Hebrew Family and Society

How did the Assyrians and Neo-Babylonians gain and lose power?

      Assyria’s Long Road to Power

      Assyrian Rule and Culture

      The Neo-Babylonian Empire

How did the Persians conquer and rule their extensive empire?

      Consolidation of the Persian Empire

      Persian Religion

      Persian Art and Culture



Individuals in Society: King Taharqa of Kush and Egypt

Thinking Like a Historian: The Moral Life

Viewpoints Rulers and Divine Favor: Views of Cyrus the Great

Evaluating Written Evidence: Manumission of an Enslaved Woman and Her Daughter

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Assyrians Besiege a City


Chapter 3: The Development of Greek Society and Culture, ca. 3000–338 B.C.E.

How did the geography of Greece shape its earliest kingdoms?

      Geography and Settlement

      The Minoans

      The Mycenaeans

      Homer, Hesiod, and the Epic

What was the role of the polis in Greek society?

      Organization of the Polis

      Governing Structures

      Overseas Expansion

      The Growth of Sparta

      The Evolution of Athens

How did the wars of the classical period shape Greek history?

      The Persian Wars

      Growth of the Athenian Empire

      The Peloponnesian War

      The Struggle for Dominance

      Philip II and Macedonian Supremacy

What ancient Greek ideas and ideals have had a lasting influence?

      Athenian Arts in the Age of Pericles

      Households and Work

      Gender and Sexuality

      Public and Personal Religion

      The Flowering of Philosophy



Evaluating Written Evidence: Thucydides on the Great Plague at Athens

Evaluating Visual Evidence: The Acropolis of Athens

Viewpoints: Greek Playwrights on Families, Fate, and Choice

Individuals in Society: Aristophanes

Thinking Like a Historian: Gender Roles in Classical Athens


Chapter 4: Life in the Hellenistic World, 338–30 B.C.E.

How and why did Alexander the Great create an empire, and how did it evolve?

      Military Campaigns

      The Political Legacy

How did Greek ideas and traditions spread to create a Hellenized society?

      Urban Life

      Greeks in Hellenistic Cities

      Greeks and Non-Greeks

What characterized the Hellenistic economy?

      Rural Life

      Production of Goods


How did religion, philosophy, and the arts reflect and shape Hellenistic life?

      Religion and Magic

      Hellenism and the Jews

      Philosophy and the People

      Art and Drama

How did science and medicine serve the needs of Hellenistic society?





Viewpoints: Greek Historians on Alexander the Great

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Bactrian Disk with Religious Figures

Evaluating Written Evidence: A Hellenistic Spell of Attraction

Individuals in Society: Epicurus

Thinking Like a Historian: Hellenistic Medicine


Chapter 5: The Rise of Rome, ca. 1000–27 B.C.E.

How did the Romans become the dominant power in Italy?

      The Geography of Italy

      The Etruscans

      The Founding of Rome

      The Roman Conquest of Italy

What were the key institutions of the Roman Republic?

      The Roman State

      Social Conflict in Rome

How did the Romans build a Mediterranean empire?

      The Punic Wars

      Rome Turns East

How did expansion affect Roman society and culture?

      Roman Families

      New Social Customs and Greek Influence

      Opposing Views: Cato the Elder and Scipio Aemilianus

What led to the fall of the Roman Republic?

      The Countryside and Land Reforms

      Political Violence

      Civil War and the Rise of Julius Caesar



Viewpoints: Praise of Good Women in the Eulogy for Murdia and the Turia Inscription

Evaluating Visual Evidence: The Temple of Hercules Victor

Thinking Like a Historian: Land Ownership and Social Conflict in the Late Republic

Evaluating Written Evidence: Julius Caesar on the Gauls

Individuals in Society: Queen Cleopatra


Chapter 6: The Roman Empire, 27 B.C.E.–284 C.E.

How did Augustus and Roman elites create a foundation for the Roman Empire?

      Augustus and His Allies

      Roman Expansion

      Latin Literature

      Marriage and Morality

How did the Roman state develop after Augustus?

      The Julio-Claudians and the Flavians

      The Nerva-Antonine Dynasty

What was life like in the city of Rome and in the provinces?

      Life in Imperial Rome

      Approaches to Urban Problems

      Popular Entertainment

      Prosperity in the Roman Provinces

      Trade and Commerce

How did Christianity grow into a major religious movement?

      Factors Behind the Rise of Christianity

      The Life and Teachings of Jesus

      The Spread of Christianity

      The Growing Acceptance and Evolution of Christianity

What political and economic problems did Rome face in the third century C.E.?

      Civil Wars and Military Commanders

      Turmoil in Economic Life



Thinking Like a Historian: Army and Empire

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Ara Pacis Augustae

Viewpoints: The Pax Romana

Evaluating Written Evidence: Ovid, The Art of Love

Individuals in Society: Pliny the Elder


Chapter 7: Late Antiquity, 250–600

How did Diocletian and Constantine try to reform the empire?

      Political Measures

      Economic Issues

      The Acceptance of Christianity

How did the Christian Church become a major force in the Mediterranean and Europe?

      The Church and Its Leaders

      The Development of Christian Monasticism

      Monastery Life

      Christianity and Classical Culture

      Christian Notions of Gender and Sexuality

      Saint Augustine on Human Nature, Will, and Sin

What were the key characteristics of barbarian society?

      Village and Family Life

      Tribes and Hierarchies

      Customary and Written Law

      Celtic and Germanic Religion

How did the barbarian migrations shape Europe?

      Celtic and Germanic People in Gaul and Britain

      Visigoths and Huns

      Germanic Kingdoms and the End of the Roman Empire

How did the church convert barbarian peoples to Christianity?

      Missionaries’ Actions

      The Process of Conversion

How did the Byzantine Empire preserve the legacy of Rome?

      Sources of Byzantine Strength

      The Law Code of Justinian

      Byzantine Learning and Science

      The Orthodox Church



Individuals in Society: Macrina the Younger

Viewpoints: Roman and Byzantine Views of Barbarians

Thinking Like a Historian: Slavery in Roman and Germanic Society

Evaluating Written Evidence: Gregory of Tours on the Veneration of Relics

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Mosaic of Empress Theodora


Chapter 8: Europe in the Early Middle Ages, 600–1000

What were the origins of Islam, and what impact did it have on Europe as it spread?

      The Culture of the Arabian Peninsula

      The Prophet Muhammad

      The Teachings and Expansion of Islam

      Sunni and Shi’a Divisions

      Life in Muslim Spain

      Muslim-Christian Encounters

      Cross-Cultural Influences in Science and Medicine

How did the Franks build and govern a European empire?

      The Merovingians

      The Rise of the Carolingians

      The Warrior-Ruler Charlemagne

      Carolingian Government and Society

      The Imperial Coronation of Charlemagne

What were the significant intellectual and cultural developments in Charlemagne’s era?

      The Carolingian Renaissance

      Northumbrian Learning and Writing

How did the ninth-century invasions and migrations shape Europe?

      Vikings in Western Europe

      Slavs and Vikings in Eastern Europe

      Magyars and Muslims

How and why did Europe become politically and economically decentralized in this period?

      Decentralization and the Origins of "Feudalism"

      Manorialism, Serfdom, and the Slave Trade



Viewpoints: The Muslim Conquest of Spain

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Charlemagne and His Second Wife Hildegard

Individuals in Society: The Venerable Bede

Evaluating Written Evidence: The Death of Beowulf

Thinking Like a Historian: Vikings Tell Their Own Story


Chapter 9: State and Church in the High Middle Ages, 1000–1300

How did monarchs try to centralize political power?



      Central Europe


      The Iberian Peninsula

How did the administration of law evolve in this period?

      Local Laws and Royal Courts

      The Magna Carta

      Law in Everyday Life

What were the political and social roles of nobles?

      Origins and Status of the Nobility

      Training, Marriage, and Inheritance

      Power and Responsibility

How did the papacy reform the church, and what were the reactions to these efforts?

      The Gregorian Reforms

      Emperor Versus Pope

      Criticism and Heresy

      The Popes and Church Law

What roles did monks, nuns, and friars play in medieval society?

      Monastic Revival

      Life in Convents and Monasteries

      The Friars

What were the causes, course, and consequences of the Crusades and the broader expansion of Christianity?

      Background and Motives of the Crusades

      The Course of the Crusades

      Consequences of the Crusades

      The Expansion of Christianity




Viewpoints: Oaths of Fealty

Evaluating Written Evidence: Pope Boniface VIII, Unam Sanctam

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Illustrations from the Life of St. Edmund

Individuals in Society: Hildegard of Bingen

Thinking Like a Historian: Christian and Muslim Views of the Crusades


Chapter 10: Life in Villages and Cities of the High Middle Ages, 1000–1300

What was village life like in medieval Europe?

      Serfdom and Social Mobility

      The Manor


      Home Life

      Childbirth and Childhood

How did religion shape everyday life in the High Middle Ages?

      Christian Life in Medieval Villages

      Saints and Sacraments

      Muslims and Jews

      Rituals of Marriage and Birth

      Death and the Afterlife

What led to Europe’s economic growth and reurbanization?

      The Rise of Towns

      Merchant and Craft Guilds

      The Revival of Long-Distance Trade

      Business Procedures

      The Commercial Revolution

What was life like in medieval cities?

      City Life

      Servants and the Poor

      Popular Entertainment

How did universities serve the needs of medieval society?


      Legal and Medical Training

      Theology and Philosophy

      University Students

How did literature and architecture express medieval values?

      Vernacular Literature and Drama

      Churches and Cathedrals



Thinking Like a Historian: Social and Economic Relations in Medieval English Villages

Individuals in Society: Cecilia Penifader

Evaluating Written Evidence: Apprenticeship Contract for a Money-Changer

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Healthy Living

Viewpoints: Male and Female Troubadours


Chapter 11: The Later Middle Ages, 1300–1450

How did climate change shape the late Middle Ages?

      Climate Change and Famine

      Social Consequences

How did the plague affect European society?


      Spread of the Disease

      Care of the Sick

      Economic, Religious, and Cultural Effects

What were the causes, course, and consequences of the Hundred Years’ War?


      English Successes

      Joan of Arc and France’s Victory


Why did the church come under increasing criticism?

      The Babylonian Captivity and Great Schism

      Critiques, Divisions, and Councils

      Lay Piety and Mysticism

What explains the social unrest of the late Middle Ages?

      Peasant Revolts

      Urban Conflicts

      Sex in the City

      Fur-Collar Crime

      Ethnic Tensions and Restrictions

      Literacy and Vernacular Literature



Viewpoints: Italian and English Views of the Plague

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Dance of Death

Evaluating Written Evidence: The Trial of Joan of Arc

Individuals in Society: Meister Eckhart

Thinking Like a Historian: Popular Revolts in the Late Middle Ages


Chapter 12: European Society in the Age of the Renaissance, 1350–1550

How did political and economic developments in Italy shape the Renaissance?

      Trade and Prosperity

      Communes and Republics of Northern Italy

      City-States and the Balance of Power

What new ideas were associated with the Renaissance?



      Political Thought

      Christian Humanism

      The Printed Word

How did art reflect new Renaissance ideals?

      Patronage and Power

      Changing Artistic Styles

      The Renaissance Artist

What were the key social hierarchies in Renaissance Europe?

      Race and Slavery

      Wealth and the Nobility

      Gender Roles

How did nation-states develop in this period?






Viewpoints: Venice Versus Florence

Individuals in Society: Leonardo da Vinci

Thinking Like a Historian: Humanist Learning

Evaluating Written Evidence: Christine de Pizan, The Treasure of the City of Ladies

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Andrea Mantegna, Adoration of the Magi (c. 1495-1505)


Chapter 13: Reformations and Religious Wars, 1500–1600

What were the central ideas of the reformers, and why were they appealing to different social groups?

      The Christian Church in the Early Sixteenth Century

      Martin Luther

      Protestant Thought

      The Appeal of Protestant Ideas

      The Radical Reformation and the German Peasants’ War

      Marriage, Sexuality, and the Role of Women

How did the political situation in Germany shape the course of the Reformation?

      The Rise of the Habsburg Dynasty

      Religious Wars in Switzerland and Germany

How did Protestant ideas and institutions spread beyond German-speaking lands?


      Henry VIII and the Reformation in England

      Upholding Protestantism in England


      The Reformation in Eastern Europe

What reforms did the Catholic Church make, and how did it respond to Protestant reform movements?

      Papal Reform and the Council of Trent

      New and Reformed Religious Orders

What were the causes and consequences of religious violence, including riots, wars, and witch-hunts?

      French Religious Wars

      The Netherlands Under Charles V

      The Great European Witch-Hunt



Evaluating Written Evidence: Martin Luther, On Christian Liberty

Individuals in Society: Anna Jansz of Rotterdam

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Lucas de Heere, Allegory of the Tudor Succession, 1572

Thinking Like a Historian: Social Discipline in the Reformation

Viewpoints: Catholic and Calvinist Churches


Chapter 14: European Exploration and Conquest, 1450–1650

What was the Afro-Eurasian trading world before Columbus?

      The Trade World of the Indian Ocean

      The Trading States of Africa

      The Middle East

      Genoese and Venetian Middlemen

How and why did Europeans undertake ambitious voyages of expansion?

      Causes of European Expansion

      Technology and the Rise of Exploration

      The Portuguese Overseas Empire

      Spain’s Voyages to the Americas

      Spain "Discovers" the Pacific

      Early Exploration by Northern European Powers

What was the impact of European conquest on the New World?

      Conquest of the Aztec Empire

      The Fall of the Incas

      Portuguese Brazil

      Colonial Empires of England and France

      Colonial Administration

How did Europe and the world change after Columbus?

      Economic Exploitation of the Indigenous Population

      Society in the Colonies

      Population Loss and the Ecological Impacts of Contact

      Sugar and Slavery

      Spanish Silver and Its Economic Effects

      The Birth of the Global Economy

How did expansion change European attitudes and beliefs?

      Religious Conversion

      European Debates About Indigenous Peoples

      New Ideas About Race

      Michel de Montaigne and Cultural Curiosity

      William Shakespeare and His Influence



Evaluating Written Evidence: Columbus Describes His First Voyage

Thinking Like a Historian: Who Was Doña Marina?

Individuals in Society: Catarina de San Juan

Viewpoints: Aztec and Spanish Views on Christian Conversion in New Spain

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Andrés Sánchez Gallque, The Mulatto Gentlemen of Esmeraldas, 1599


Chapter 15: Absolutism and Constitutionalism, ca. 1589–1725

What were the crises and achievements of seventeenth-century European states?

      The Social Order and Peasant Life

      Environmental, Economic, and Social Crisis

      The Thirty Years’ War

      State-Building and the Growth of Armies

      Baroque Art and Music

What was absolutism, and how did it evolve in western and central Europe?

      The Decline of Absolutist Spain in the Seventeenth Century

      The Foundations of French Absolutism

      Louis XIV and Absolutism

      Life at Versailles

      Louis XIV’s Wars

      The French Economic Policy of Mercantilism

What explains the rise of absolutism in Prussia and Austria?

      The Return of Serfdom

      The Austrian Habsburgs

      Prussia in the Seventeenth Century

      The Consolidation of Prussian Absolutism

What were the distinctive features of Russian and Ottoman absolutism?

      Mongol Rule in Russia and the Rise of Moscow

      Building the Russian Empire

      The Reforms of Peter the Great

      The Ottoman Empire

What were alternatives to absolutism in early modern Europe?

      The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

      The Failure of Absolutism in England

      The Puritan Protectorate

      The Restoration of the English Monarchy

      Constitutional Monarchy

      The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century



Thinking Like a Historian: What Was Absolutism?

Evaluating Written Evidence: Peter the Great and Foreign Experts

Individuals in Society: Hürrem

Viewpoints: Stuart Claims to Absolutism and the Parliamentary Response

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Gonzales Coques, The Young Scholar and His Wife, 1640


Chapter 16: Toward a New Worldview, 1540–1789

What revolutionary discoveries were made in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries?

      Contributions from the Muslim World

      Scientific Thought to 1500

      The Copernican Hypothesis

      Brahe, Kepler, and Galileo: Proving Copernicus Right

      Newton’s Synthesis

      Natural History and Empire

      Magic and Alchemy

What intellectual and social changes occurred as a result of the Scientific Revolution?

      The Methods of Science: Bacon and Descartes

      Medicine, the Body, and Chemistry

      Science and Religion

      Science and Society

How did the Enlightenment emerge, and what were major currents of Enlightenment thought?

      The Early Enlightenment

      The Influence of the Philosophes

      Enlightenment Movements Across Europe

How did the Enlightenment change social ideas and practices?

      Global Contacts

      Enlightenment Debates About Race

      Women and the Enlightenment

      Urban Culture and Life in the Public Sphere

What impact did new ways of thinking have on politics?

      Frederick the Great of Prussia

      Catherine the Great of Russia

      The Austrian Habsburgs

      Jewish Life and the Limits of Enlightened Absolutism



Evaluating Written Evidence: Galileo Galilei, The Sidereal Messenger

Thinking Like a Historian: The Enlightenment Debate on Religious Tolerance

Viewpoints: Rousseau and Wollstonecraft Debate Women’s Equality

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Léonard Defrance and the Public Sphere

Individuals in Society: Moses Mendelssohn and the Jewish Enlightenment


Chapter 17: The Expansion of Europe, 1650–1800

Why did European agriculture grow between 1650 and 1800?

      The Legacy of the Open-Field System

      New Methods of Agriculture

      The Leadership of the Low Countries and England

Why did the European population rise dramatically in the eighteenth century?

      Long-Standing Obstacles to Population Growth

      The New Pattern of the Eighteenth Century

      How and why did rural industry intensify in the eighteenth century?

      The Putting-Out System

      The Lives of Rural Textile Workers

      The Industrious Revolution

What important changes occurred in economic thought and practice in the eighteenth century?

      Economic Regulation and the Guilds

      The Financial Revolution

      Adam Smith and Economic Liberalism

      How did empire and trade shape new economic, cultural, and social developments?

      Mercantilism and Colonial Competition

      The Atlantic Economy

      The Transatlantic Slave Trade

      Identities and Communities of the Atlantic World

      The Atlantic Enlightenment

      Trade and Empire in Asia and the Pacific



Evaluating Written Evidence: Thomas Malthus on the Limitation of Human Population

Thinking Like a Historian: Rural Industry: Progress or Exploitation?

Viewpoints: Opposing Views on Guilds and Economic Regulation

Evaluating Visual Evidence: New Ideas about Race and Identity

Individuals in Society: Rebecca Protten


Chapter 18: Life in the Era of Expansion, 1650–1800

How did marriage and family life change in the eighteenth century?

      Late Marriage and Nuclear Families

      Work Away from Home

      Contraception and Community Controls

      New Patterns of Marriage and Illegitimacy

      Sex on the Margins of Society

What was life like for children, and how did attitudes toward childhood evolve?

      Child Care and Nursing

      Foundlings and Infanticide

      Attitudes Toward Children

      The Spread of Elementary Schools

How did increasing literacy and new patterns of consumption affect people’s lives?

      Popular Literature

      Leisure and Recreation

      New Foods and Appetites

      Toward a Consumer Society

What role did religion play in eighteenth-century society?

      Church Hierarchy

      Protestant Revival

      Catholic Piety

      Marginal Beliefs and Practices

How did the practice of medicine evolve in the eighteenth century?

      Faith Healing and General Practice

      Improvements in Surgery


      The Conquest of Smallpox and the Birth of Vaccination



Evaluating Written Evidence: A Day in the Life of Paris

Individuals in Society: Rose Bertin, "Minister of Fashion"

Thinking Like a Historian: A New Subjectivity

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Hogarth’s Satirical View of the Church

Viewpoints: The Case for and Against Female Midwives


Chapter 19: Revolutions in Politics, 1775–1815

What were the factors behind the revolutions of the late eighteenth century?

      Social Change

      Growing Demands for Liberty and Equality

      The Seven Years’ War

Why and how did American colonists forge a new, independent nation?

      The Origins of the Revolution

      Independence from Britain

      Framing the Constitution

      Limitations of Liberty and Equality

How did the events of 1789 result in a constitutional monarchy in France?

      Breakdown of the Old Order

      The Formation of the National Assembly

      Popular Uprising and the Rights of Man

      A Constitutional Monarchy and Its Challenges

Why and how did the French Revolution take a radical turn?

      The International Response

      The Second Revolution and the New Republic

      Total War and the Terror

      The Thermidorian Reaction and the Directory

      How did Napoleon Bonaparte create a French empire, and why did it fail?

      Napoleon’s Rule of France

      Napoleon’s Expansion in Europe

      The Grand Empire and Its End

      How did slave revolt on colonial Saint-Domingue lead to the independent nation of Haiti?

      Revolutionary Aspirations in Saint-Domingue

      The Outbreak of Revolt

      The War of Haitian Independence



Evaluating Written Evidence: Abigail Adams, "Remember the Ladies"

Thinking Like a Historian: The Rights of Which Men?

Viewpoints: Contrasting Visions of the Sans-Culottes

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Francisco Goya, The Third of May 1808

Individuals in Society: Vincent Ogé


Chapter 20: The Revolution in Energy and Industry, ca. 1780–1850

Why and how did the Industrial Revolution emerge in Britain?

Why Britain?

      Technological Innovations and Early Factories

      The Steam Engine Breakthrough

      Steam-Powered Transportation

      Industry and Population

      How did countries outside Britain respond to the challenge of industrialization?

      National and International Variations

      Industrialization in Continental Europe

      Agents of Industrialization

      The Global Picture

How did work and daily life evolve during the Industrial Revolution?

      Work in Early Factories

      Working Families and Children

      The New Sexual Division of Labor

      Living Standards for the Working Class

      Environmental Impacts of Industrialization

What were the social consequences of industrialization?

      The New Class of Factory Owners

      Responses to Industrialization

      The Early British Labor Movement

      The Impact of Slavery



Individuals in Society: Samuel Crompton

Viewpoints: The Experience of Child Labor

Evaluating Visual Evidence: The Dinner Hour, Wigan

Thinking Like a Historian: Making the Industrialized Worker

Evaluating Written Evidence: Advice for Middle-Class Women


Chapter 21: Ideologies and Upheavals, 1815–1850

How was peace restored and maintained after the Napoleonic Wars?

      The European Balance of Power

      Metternich and Conservatism

      Repressing the Revolutionary Spirit

      Limits to Conservative Power and Revolution in South America

What new ideologies emerged to challenge conservatism?

      Liberalism and the Middle Class

      The Growing Appeal of Nationalism

      The First Socialists

      The Birth of Marxist Socialism

What were the characteristics of the Romantic movement?

      The Romantic Worldview

      Romantic Literature

      Romanticism in Art and Music

How did reforms and revolutions challenge conservatism after 1815?

      The Greek War of Independence

      Liberal Reform in Great Britain

      Ireland and the Great Famine

      The Revolution of 1830 in France

What were the main causes and consequences of the revolutions of 1848?

      A Democratic Republic in France

      Revolution and Reaction in the Austrian Empire

      Prussia, the German Confederation, and the Frankfurt National Assembly



Evaluating Written Evidence: The Karlsbad Decrees: Conservative Reaction in the German Confederation

Thinking Like a Historian: The Republican Spirit in 1848

Individuals in Society: Mary Shelley

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Honoré Daumier, Gargantua, 1831

Viewpoints: Picturing Revolutionary Violence in 1848


Chapter 22: Life in the Emerging Urban Society, 1840–1914

What were the main changes in urban life in the nineteenth century?

      Industry and the Growth of Cities

      The Advent of the Public Health Movement

      The Bacterial Revolution

      Improvements in Urban Planning

      Public Transportation

How did class and gender reinforce social difference in the nineteenth century?     

      The Distribution of Income

      The People and Occupations of the Middle Classes

      The People and Occupations of the Working Classes


      The Leisure Pursuits of the Working Classes

      Faith and Religion

How did urbanization affect family life and gender roles?

      Lifestyles of the Middle Classes

      Middle-Class Marriage and Courtship Rituals

      Middle- and Working-Class Sexuality

      Separate Spheres and the Importance of Homemaking

      Child Rearing

What were the most important changes in science and culture?

      The Triumph of Science in Industry

      Darwin and Natural Selection

      The Modern University and the Social Sciences

      Realism in Art and Literature



Evaluating Written Evidence: First Impressions of the World’s Biggest City

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Apartment Living in Paris

Individuals in Society: Franziska Tiburtius

Thinking Like a Historian: The Promise of Electricity

Viewpoints: Émile Zola and Naturalism/Realism in Western Literature


Chapter 23: The Age of Nationalism, 1850–1914

What were the main features of the authoritarian nation-state built by Napoleon III?

      France’s Second Republic

      Napoleon III’s Second Empire

How were strong nation-states forged in Italy, Germany, and the United States?

      The Unification of Italy

      The Austro-Prussian War

      Taming the German Parliament

      The Franco-Prussian War and German Unification

How did Russian and Ottoman leaders modernize their states and societies?

      The "Great Reforms" in Russia

      The Russian Revolution of 1905

      Reform and Readjustment in the Ottoman Empire

How did the relationship between government and the governed change after 1871?

      The Responsive National State

      The German Empire

      Republican France and the Third French Republic

      Great Britain and Ireland

      The Austro-Hungarian Empire

What were the costs and benefits of nationalism for ordinary people?

      Making National Citizens

      The Feminist Movement

      Nationalism and Racism

      Jewish Emancipation and Modern Anti-Semitism

How and why did revolutionary Marxism evolve in the late nineteenth century?

      The Socialist International

      Labor Unions and the Evolution of Working-Class Radicalism

      Marxist Revisionism



Evaluating Visual Evidence: The Proclamation of the German Empire, January 1871

Evaluating Written Evidence: Eyewitness Account of Bloody Sunday

Thinking Like a Historian: How to Build a Nation

Individuals in Society: Theodor Herzl

Viewpoints: Marxist Revisionism


Chapter 24: The West and the World, 1815–1914

What were the global consequences of European industrialization?

      The Rise of Global Inequality

      The World Market

      Western Pressures on China

      Japan and the United States

      Western Intervention in Egypt

How was massive migration an integral part of Western expansion?

      The Pressure of Population

      European Emigration

      The Immigrant Experience in the United States

      Asian Emigration

How did the New Imperialism change Western colonialism?

      The European Presence in Africa Before 1880

      The Berlin Conference and the Scramble for Africa

      The British in Africa After 1885

      Imperialism in Asia

      Causes of the New Imperialism

      A "Civilizing Mission"

      Gender and Empire

      European Critics of Imperialism

How did non-Westerners respond to Western expansion?

      Impacts and Patterns of Response

      The British Empire in India

      Reforming Japan

      Toward Revolution in China



Evaluating Written Evidence: Nativism in the United States

Evaluating Visual Evidence: European Imperialism at Its Worst

Individuals in Society: Cecil Rhodes

Viewpoints: White Man’s Burden or Capitalist Exploitation?

Thinking Like a Historian: Women and Empire


Chapter 25: War and Revolution, 1914–1919

What caused the outbreak of the First World War?

      Growing International Conflict

      The Mood of 1914

      The July Crisis and the Outbreak of War

How did the First World War differ from previous wars?

      Stalemate and Slaughter on the Western Front

      The Widening War

      In what ways did the war transform life on the home front?

      Mobilizing for Total War

      The Social Impact of Total War

      Growing Political Tensions

Why did world war lead to a successful Communist revolution in Russia?

      The Fall of Imperial Russia

      The Provisional Government

      Lenin and the Bolshevik Revolution

      Trotsky and the Seizure of Power

      Dictatorship and Civil War

What were the benefits and costs of the postwar peace settlement?

      The End of the War

      Revolution in Austria-Hungary and Germany

      The Treaty of Versailles

      The Peace Settlement in the Middle East

      The Human Costs of the War



Viewpoints: Poetry in the Trenches

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Wartime Propaganda Posters

Individuals in Society: Vera Brittain

Thinking Like a Historian: The Partition of the Ottoman Empire and the Mandate System

Evaluating Written Evidence: Peace, Land, and Bread for the Russian People


Chapter 26: Opportunity and Crisis in the Age of Modernity, 1880–1940

How did intellectual developments reflect the ambiguities of modernity?

      Modern Philosophy

      The Revival of Christianity

      The New Physics

      Freudian Psychology

How did modernism revolutionize Western culture?

      Architecture and Design

      New Artistic Movements

      Twentieth-Century Literature

      Modern Music

How did consumer society change everyday life?

      Modern Mass Culture

      The Appeal of Cinema

      The Arrival of Radio

What obstacles to lasting peace did European leaders face?

      Germany and the Western Powers

      Hope in Foreign Affairs

      Hope in Democratic Government

What were the causes and consequences of the Great Depression?

      The Economic Crisis

      Mass Unemployment

      The New Deal in the United States

      The Scandinavian Response to the Depression

      Recovery and Reform in Britain and France



Evaluating Written Evidence: Friedrich Nietzsche Pronounces the Death of God

Individuals in Society: Sigmund Freud

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Georg Grosz, Eclipse of the Sun, 1926

Viewpoints: The Modern Girl: Image or Reality?

Thinking Like a Historian: The Radio Age


Chapter 27: Dictatorships and the Second World War, 1919–1945

What were the most important characteristics of Communist and Fascist ideologies?

      Conservative Authoritarianism and Radical Totalitarian Dictatorships

      Communism and Fascism

      The Spanish Civil War

How did Stalinism transform state and society in the Soviet Union?

      From Lenin to Stalin

      Stalin and the Nationalities Question

      The Five-Year Plans

      Life and Culture in Soviet Society

      The Great Purges and the Great Terror of 1937-38

What kind of government did Mussolini establish in Italy?

      The Seizure of Power

      The Fascist Regime in Action

What policies did Nazi Germany pursue, and why did they appeal to ordinary Germans?

      The Roots of National Socialism

      Hitler’s Road to Power

      State and Society in Nazi Germany

      Popular Support for National Socialism

      Aggression and Appeasement

What explains the success and then defeat of Germany and Japan during World War II?

      German Victories in Europe

      Europe Under Nazi Occupation

      The Holocaust

      Japanese Empire and the War in the Pacific

      The Grand Alliance and the "Hinge of Fate"

      Allied Victory



Evaluating Written Evidence: Famine and Recovery on a Soviet Collective Farm in the Ukraine

Thinking Like a Historian: Normalizing Eugenics and "Racial Hygiene" in Nazi Germany

Evaluating Visual Evidence: Nazi Propaganda and Consumer Goods: The "People’s Car"

Viewpoints: Oratory and Ideology in World War II

Individuals in Society: Primo Levi


Chapter 28: Cold War Conflict and Consensus, 1945–1965

Why was World War II followed so quickly by the Cold War?

      The Legacies of the Second World War

      The Peace Settlement and Cold War Origins

      West Versus East

      Big Science in the Nuclear Age

What were the sources of postwar recovery and stability in western Europe?

      The Search for Political and Social Consensus

      Toward European Unity

      The Consumer Revolution

What was the pattern of postwar development in the Soviet bloc?

      Postwar Life in the East Bloc

      Reform and De-Stalinization

      Foreign Policy and Domestic Rebellion

      The Limits of Reform

How did decolonization proceed in the Cold War era?

      Decolonization and the Global Cold War

      The Struggle for Power in Asia

      Independence and Conflict in the Middle East

      Decolonization in Africa

What were the key changes in social relations in postwar Europe?

      Changing Class Structures

      Patterns of Postwar Migration

      New Roles for Women

      Youth Culture and the Generation Gap



Viewpoints: Cold War Propaganda

Evaluating Visual Evidence: "Building the Republic": Socialist Realism in Postwar East Berlin

Evaluating Written Evidence: De-Stalinization and Khrushchev’s "Secret Speech"

Thinking Like a Historian: Violence and the Algerian War

Individuals in Society: Armando Rodrigues


Chapter 29: Challenging the Postwar Order, 1960–1991

Why did the postwar consensus of the 1950s break down?

      Cold War Tensions Thaw

      The Affluent Society

      The Counterculture Movement

      The United States and Vietnam

      Student Revolts and 1968

      The 1960s in the East Bloc

What were the consequences of economic stagnation in the 1970s?

      Economic Crisis and Hardship

      The New Conservatism

      Challenges and Victories for Women

      The Rise of the Environmental Movement

      Separatism and Right-Wing Extremism

What led to the decline of "developed socialism" in the East Bloc?

      State and Society in the East Bloc

      Dissent in Czechoslovakia and Poland

      From Détente Back to Cold War

      Gorbachev’s Reforms in the Soviet Union

What were the causes and consequences of the 1989 revolutions in the East Bloc?

      The Collapse of Communism in the East Bloc

      German Unification and the End of the Cold War

      The Disintegration of the Soviet Union



Evaluating Written Evidence: Human Rights Under the Helsinki Accords

Evaluating Visual Evidence: The Supermarket Revolution

Individuals in Society: Margaret Thatcher

Thinking Like a Historian: The New Environmentalism

Viewpoints: "Mr. Gorbachev, Tear Down This Wall"


Chapter 30: Life in an Age of Globalization, 1990 to the Present

How did life change in Russia and the former East Bloc countries after 1989?

      Economic Shock Therapy in Russia

      Russian Revival Under Vladimir Putin

      Political Instability and Russian Intervention in the Former Soviet Republics

      Economic and Political Transformations in the Former East Bloc

      Civil War in Yugoslavia

How did globalization affect European life and society?

      The Global Economy

      The New European Union

      Supranational Organizations

      Life in the Age of Social Media

      The Costs and Consequences of Globalization

How is growing ethnic diversity changing contemporary Europe?

      The Prospect of Population Decline

      Changing Immigration Flows

      Toward a Multicultural Continent

      Europe and Its Muslim Population

What challenges will Europeans face in the coming decades?

      Growing Strains in U.S.-European Relations

      Turmoil in the Muslim World

      The Global Recession and the Viability of the European Union

      The New Populism

      The COVID-19 Pandemic

      Dependence on Fossil Fuels, Climate Change, and Environmental Degradation

      Promoting Human Rights



Individuals in Society: Alexei Navalny

Viewpoints: Debating the Impact of Social Media and the Internet

Evaluating Written Evidence: The Thessaloniki Programme

Evaluating Visual Evidence: "John Bull" Supports Brexit

Thinking Like a Historian: The Conservative Reaction to Immigration and Islamist Terrorism




Timeline: A History of Western Society: A Brief Overview

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Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks; Clare Haru Crowston; Joe Perry | Fourteenth Edition | ©2023 | ISBN:9781319480295