Psychology in Everyday Life
Publication Date: April 30, 2023
Paperback ISBN: 9781319498665
Think critically, consider diverse perspectives, and improve your everyday life.
Best-selling authors David Myers' and Nathan DeWall’s briefest introduction to psychology speaks to all students, with no assumptions made in the vocabulary, examples, or presentation. The manageable and effective chapters help students apply psychological concepts to their own lives in...
Best-selling authors David Myers' and Nathan DeWall’s briefest introduction to psychology speaks to all students, with no assumptions made in the vocabulary, examples, or presentation. The manageable and effective chapters help students apply psychological concepts to their own lives in meaningful and engaging ways.
Psychology in Everyday Life
Psychology in Everyday Life
Student Preface: Skills for Student Success—How to Apply Psychology to Live Your Best Life
Psychology’s Roots, Critical Thinking, and Self-Improvement Tools
Psychology Is a Science
Critical Thinking and the Scientific Attitude
THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: The Scientific Attitude
Psychological Science’s Birth and Development
The Need for Psychological Science
The Limits of Common Sense
Psychological Science in a Post-Truth World
How Do Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions?
The Scientific Method
THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: Correlation and Causation
Choosing a Research Design
Predicting Everyday Behavior
Psychology’s Research Ethics
Studying and Protecting Animals
Studying and Protecting Humans
Values in Psychology
Use Psychology to Become a Stronger Person—and a Better Student
The Biology of Behavior and Consciousness
The Power of Neuroplasticity
A Neuron’s Structure
How Neurons Communicate
How Neurotransmitters Influence Us
The Nervous System
The Peripheral Nervous System
The Central Nervous System
The Endocrine System
Tools of Discovery—Having Our Head Examined
Brain Regions and Structures
The Limbic System
The Cerebral Cortex
THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: Do We Use Only 10 Percent of Our Brain?
Damage Response and Brain Hemispheres
Brain States and Consciousness
Sleep and Dreams
Developing Through the Life Span
Developmental Psychology’s Major Issues
Nature and Nurture
Continuity and Stages
Stability and Change
Prenatal Development and the Newborn
The Competent Newborn
Twin and Adoption Studies
Infancy and Childhood
THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: Parenting Styles—Too Hard, Too Soft, Too Uncaring, and Just Right?
Sex, Gender, and Sexuality
Similarities and Differences
THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: Gender Bias in the Workplace
The Nature of Gender
The Nurture of Gender
THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: Sexual Aggression
The Physiology of Sex
The Psychology of Sex
Cultural Attitudes and Prevalence
Why Do We Differ?
An Evolutionary Explanation of Human Sexuality
Male-Female Differences in Sexuality
Natural Selection and Mating Preferences
Critiquing the Evolutionary Perspective
Sex and Human Relationships
Reflections on the Nature and Nurture of Sex, Gender, and Sexuality
Sensation and Perception
Basic Concepts of Sensation and Perception
From Outer Energy to Inner Brain Activity
THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: Subliminal Stimulation and Subliminal Persuasion
Context, Motivation, and Emotion
Light Energy and Eye Structures
Information Processing in the Eye and Brain
Sound Waves: From the Environment Into the Brain
Decoding Sound Waves
How Do We Locate Sounds?
Skin, Chemical, and Body Senses
Chemical Senses: Taste and Smell
Body Position and Movement
Perception Without Sensation?
How Do We Learn?
Contrasting Classical and Operant Conditioning
Biology, Cognition, and Learning
Biological Limits on Conditioning
Cognitive Influences on Conditioning
Learning by Observation
Mirrors and Imitation in the Brain
Observational Learning in Everyday Life
THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: The Effects of Viewing Media Violence
An Information-Processing Model
Building Memories: Encoding
Our Two-Track Memory System
Automatic Processing and Implicit Memories
Effortful Processing and Explicit Memories
Retaining Information in the Brain
Retrieval: Getting Information Out
Forgetting and the Two-Track Mind
Memory Construction Errors
Misinformation and Imagination Effects
Recognizing False Memories
THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: Can Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse Be Repressed and Then Recovered?
Children’s Eyewitness Recall
Thinking, Language, and Intelligence
Making Good (and Bad) Decisions and Judgments
THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: The Fear Factor
Do Other Species Share Our Cognitive Skills?
Language Acquisition and Development
The Brain and Language
Thinking Without Language
Do Other Species Have Language?
What Is Intelligence?
The Nature and Nurture of Intelligence
Intelligence Across the Life Span
Group Differences in Intelligence Test Scores
Motivation and Emotion
Drives and Incentives
A Hierarchy of Needs
The Physiology of Hunger
The Psychology of Hunger
THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: The Challenges of Obesity and Weight Control
The Need to Belong
The Benefits of Belonging
The Pain of Being Shut Out
Connecting and Social Networking
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
Emotion: Arousal, Behavior, and Cognition
James-Lange Theory: Arousal Comes Before Emotion
Cannon-Bard Theory: Arousal and Emotion Happen at the Same Time
Schachter-Singer Two-Factor Theory: Arousal + Label = Emotion
Zajonc, LeDoux, and Lazarus: Emotion and the Two-Track Brain
The Basic Emotions
Emotions and the Autonomic Nervous System
The Physiology of Emotions
THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: Lie Detection
Expressed and Experienced Emotion
Detecting Emotion in Others
Culture and Emotion
The Effects of Facial Expressions
Stress, Health, and Human Flourishing
Stress: Some Basic Concepts
Stressors—Things That Push Our Buttons
Stress Reactions—From Alarm to Exhaustion
Stress Effects and Health
Stress and Heart Disease
THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: Stress and Health
Coping With Stress
Optimism and Pessimism
Managing Stress Effects
Relaxation and Meditation
Faith Communities and Health
Happiness and Well-Being
When Are We Happiest?
What Makes Us Happy?
Evidence-Based Suggestions for a Happy Life
Questioning Some Myths About Happiness
What Is Social Psychology’s Focus?
The Fundamental Attribution Error
Attitudes and Actions
THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: How to Be Persuasive
Conformity and Obedience
THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: The Internet as Social Amplifier
From Conflict to Peace
What Is Personality?
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Perspective: Exploring the Unconscious
The Neo-Freudian and Later Psychodynamic Theorists
Assessing Unconscious Processes
Evaluating Freud’s Psychoanalytic Perspective and Modern Views of the Unconscious
Abraham Maslow’s Self-Actualizing Person
Carl Rogers’ Person-Centered Perspective
Assessing the Self
Evaluating Humanistic Theories
THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: The Stigma of Introversion
The Big Five Factors
Evaluating Trait Theories
Assessing Behavior in Situations
Evaluating Social-Cognitive Theories
Exploring the Self
The Benefits and Costs of Self-Esteem
Culture and the Self
What Is a Psychological Disorder?
Defining Psychological Disorders
Understanding Psychological Disorders
Classifying Disorders—and Labeling People
Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
Understanding Anxiety-Related Disorders
Substance Use Disorders
THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: Tolerance and Addiction
Types of Psychoactive Drugs
Understanding Substance Use Disorders
Depressive Disorders and Bipolar Disorders
Understanding Depressive Disorders and Bipolar Disorders
Symptoms of Schizophrenia
Onset and Development of Schizophrenia
Dissociative, Personality, and Eating Disorders
Risk of Harm to Self and Others
Does Disorder Equal Danger?
Autism Spectrum Disorder
THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: ADHD—Normal High Energy or Disordered Behavior?
Treating Psychological Disorders
The Psychological Therapies
Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic Therapies
Group, Couple, and Family Therapies
Is Psychotherapy Effective?
Which Psychotherapies Work Best?
How Do Psychotherapies Help People?
Human Diversity and Psychotherapy
Ethical Principles in Psychotherapy
The Biomedical Therapies
THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: Therapeutic Lifestyle Change
Preventing Psychological Disorders and Building Resilience
Preventive Mental Health
A Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life
B Psychology at Work
C The Story of Psychology: A Timeline
D Career Fields in Psychology
E Complete Chapter Reviews
F Answers to the Retrieve & Remember and Chapter Test Questions
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