Scholarship and Resources

Our principles are informed by the following research, scholarship, and resources. Many of these sources appear here at the recommendation of our authors, who wish to credit these works, having drawn inspiration and guidance from them. We are grateful for the scholars, organizations, and individuals who are responsible for these works--our work is made possible by theirs.

NCA Learning Outcome #8

NCA Learning Outcome #8 The National Communication Association published a set nine learning outcomes in communication, developed over a two-year period by thirty select faculty members representing a diversity of institutions and backgrounds. These learning outcomes are the product of consultations with an “an array of stakeholders, including disciplinary colleagues, students, alumni, and employers,” to reflect the relevance of the discipline and to improve student learning.

Our framework has been inspired by and developed to align with NCA LOC #8, shown below:

  • LOC #8 : Utilize communication to embrace difference
  • Articulate the connection between communication and culture
  • Recognize individual and cultural similarities and differences
  • Appreciate individual and cultural similarities and differences
  • Respect diverse perspectives and the ways they influence communication
  • Articulate one’s own cultural standpoint and how it affects communication and world view
  • Demonstrate the ability to be culturally self-aware
  • Adapt one’s communication in diverse cultural contexts



  • A study conducted by Thomas Laird in 2005 suggests students with more experiences with diversity (particularly enrollment in diversity courses and positive interactions with diverse peers) are more likely to score higher on measures of academic self-confidence, social agency, and critical thinking disposition.
    • Nelson Laird, T.F. (2005). College Students’ Experiences with Diversity and Their Effects on Academic Self-Confidence, Social Agency, and Disposition toward Critical Thinking. Research in Higher Education 46(4), 365-387
  • Ratts, M. J., Singh, A. A., Nassar-McMillan, S., Butler, K., & McCullough, J. R. (2015). Multicultural and Social Justice Competencies. Authors.
  • Singh, A. A., Appling, B., & Trepal, H. (2020). Using the multicultural and social justice counseling competencies to decolonizing counseling practice: The important roles of theory, power, and action. Journal of Counseling and Development, 98, 261-271
  • Whitla, D. K., Orfield, G., Silen, W., Teperow, C., Howard, C., & Reede, J. (2003). Educational Benefits of Diversity in Medical School: A Survey of Students. Academic Medicine, 78(5), 460-466.
    • 67% of students reported having cross-cultural and cross-racial interactions during their college years in a study by Whitla et al. (2003) examining the role of diversity in education among medical school students at Harvard Medical School and the University of California: San Francisco (UCSF) School of Medicine.

Additional Resources

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