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# Calculus: Early Transcendentals

## Fourth Edition| ©2019 Jon Rogawski; Colin Adams; Robert Franzosa

The most successful calculus book of its generation, Jon Rogawski’s* Calculus* offers an ideal balance of formal precision and dedicated conceptual focus, helping students build strong computational skills while continually reinforcing the relevance of calculus to their future studies and

The most successful calculus book of its generation, Jon Rogawski’s* Calculus* offers an ideal balance of formal precision and dedicated conceptual focus, helping students build strong computational skills while continually reinforcing the relevance of calculus to their future studies and their lives.

Guided by new author Colin Adams, the new edition stays true to the late Jon Rogawski’s refreshing and highly effective approach, while drawing on extensive instructor and student feedback, and Adams’ three decades as a calculus teacher and author of math books for general audiences.

W. H. Freeman/Macmillan and WebAssign have partnered to deliver **WebAssign Premium** – a comprehensive and flexible suite of resources for your calculus course. Combining the most widely used online homework platform with the authoritative and interactive content from the textbook,

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The most successful calculus book of its generation, Jon Rogawski’s* Calculus* offers an ideal balance of formal precision and dedicated conceptual focus, helping students build strong computational skills while continually reinforcing the relevance of calculus to their future studies and their lives.

Guided by new author Colin Adams, the new edition stays true to the late Jon Rogawski’s refreshing and highly effective approach, while drawing on extensive instructor and student feedback, and Adams’ three decades as a calculus teacher and author of math books for general audiences.

W. H. Freeman/Macmillan and WebAssign have partnered to deliver **WebAssign Premium** – a comprehensive and flexible suite of resources for your calculus course. Combining the most widely used online homework platform with the authoritative and interactive content from the textbook,

**WebAssign**

*Premium**extends and enhances the classroom experience for instructors and students.*

**Maximize Teaching and Learning with WebAssign Premium**

Macmillan Learning and WebAssign have partnered to deliver WebAssign Premium – a comprehensive and flexible suite of resources for your calculus course. Combining the most widely used online homework platform with authoritative textbook content and Macmillan’s esteemed Calctools, WebAssign Premium extends and enhances the classroom experience for instructors and students.

Features

**Conceptual Insights** encourage students to develop a conceptual understanding of calculus by explaining important ideas clearly but informally.

**Graphical Insights** enhance students’ visual understanding by making the crucial connections between graphical properties and the underlying concepts.

**Reminders** are margin notes that link the current discussion to important concepts introduced earlier in the text to give students a quick review and make connections with related ideas.

**Caution** notes warn students of common pitfalls they may encounter in understanding the material. Examples work through problems to instruct students on concepts. They contain full, stepped-out solutions for each part.

**Historical Perspectives** are brief vignettes that place key discoveries and conceptual advances in their historical context. They give students a glimpse into some of the accomplishments of great mathematicians and an appreciation for their significance.

**Assumptions Matter** uses short explanations and well-chosen counterexamples to help students appreciate why hypotheses are needed in theorems.

**Section Summaries** summarize a section’s key points in a concise and useful way and emphasize for students what is most important in each section.

**Section Exercise Sets** offer a comprehensive set of exercises closely coordinated with the text. These exercises vary in difficulty from routine, to moderate, to more challenging.

**Chapter Review Exercises** offer a comprehensive set of exercises closely coordinated with the chapter material to provide additional problems for self-study or assignments.

New to This Edition

General themes of the revision include the following (a detailed list of changes is also available):

- Rewrite portions to increase readability without reducing level of mathematical rigor. This includes increasing clarity, improving organization, and building consistency.
- Add applications, particularly in life science and earth science to broaden the scientific fields represented in the book. In particular, there are a number of new examples and exercises in climate science, an area that is currently drawing a lot of interest in the scientific community.
- Add conceptual and graphical insights to assist student understanding in places where pitfalls and confusion often occurs.
- Add diversity to the Historical Perspectives and historical marginal pieces.
- Maintain threads throughout the book by previewing topics that come up later and revisiting topics that have been presented before.
- Expand the perspective on curve sketching--beyond just sketching a curve using calculus tools--to include analyzing given curves using calculus tools. (This is an addition of some elements of the “reform” perspective on calculus instruction.)
- “Tighten” the presentation of the mathematics in the text, improving rigor (without increasing the overall level of formality). This includes correcting previous errors and omissions.

Look Inside

**
Calculus: Early Transcendentals**

Fourth Edition| ©2019

Jon Rogawski; Colin Adams; Robert Franzosa

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**Calculus: Early Transcendentals**

Fourth Edition| 2019

Jon Rogawski; Colin Adams; Robert Franzosa

## Table of Contents

**Chapter 1: Precalculus Review**

1.1 Real Numbers, Functions, and Graphs

1.2 Linear and Quadratic Functions

1.3 The Basic Classes of Functions

1.4 Trigonometric Functions

1.5 Inverse Functions

1.6 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

1.7 Technology: Calculators and Computers

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 2: Limits**

2.1 The Limit Idea: Instantaneous Velocity and Tangent Lines

2.2 Investigating Limits

2.3 Basic Limit Laws

2.4 Limits and Continuity

2.5 Indeterminate Forms

2.6 The Squeeze Theorem and Trigonometric Limits

2.7 Limits at Infinity

2.8 The Intermediate Value Theorem

2.9 The Formal Definition of a Limit

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 3: Differentiation**

3.1 Definition of the Derivative

3.2 The Derivative as a Function

3.3 Product and Quotient Rules

3.4 Rates of Change

3.5 Higher Derivatives

3.6 Trigonometric Functions

3.7 The Chain Rule

3.8 Implicit Differentiation

3.9 Derivatives of General Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

3.10 Related Rates

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 4: Applications of the Derivative**

4.1 Linear Approximation and Applications

4.2 Extreme Values

4.3 The Mean Value Theorem and Monotonicity

4.4 The Second Derivative and Concavity

4.5 L’Hôpital’s Rule

4.6 Analyzing and Sketching Graphs of Functions

4.7 Applied Optimization

4.8 Newton’s Method

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 5: Integration**

5.1 Approximating and Computing Area

5.2 The Definite Integral

5.3 The Indefinite Integral

5.4 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, Part I

5.5 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, Part II

5.6 Net Change as the Integral of a Rate of Change

5.7 The Substitution Method

5.8 Further Integral Formulas

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 6: Applications of the Integral**

6.1 Area Between Two Curves

6.2 Setting Up Integrals: Volume, Density, Average Value

6.3 Volumes of Revolution: Disks and Washers

6.4 Volumes of Revolution: Cylindrical Shells

6.5 Work and Energy

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 7: Techniques of Integration**

7.1 Integration by Parts

7.2 Trigonometric Integrals

7.3 Trigonometric Substitution

7.4 Integrals Involving Hyperbolic and Inverse Hyperbolic Functions

7.5 The Method of Partial Fractions

7.6 Strategies for Integration

7.7 Improper Integrals

7.8 Numerical Integration

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 8: Further Applications of the Integral**

8.1 Probability and Integration

8.2 Arc Length and Surface Area

8.3 Fluid Pressure and Force

8.4 Center of Mass

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 9: Introduction to Differential Equations**

9.1 Solving Differential Equations

9.2 Models Involving y'=k(y-b)

9.3 Graphical and Numerical Methods

9.4 The Logistic Equation

9.5 First-Order Linear Equations

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 10: Infinite Series**

10.1 Sequences

10.2 Summing an Infinite Series

10.3 Convergence of Series with Positive Terms

10.4 Absolute and Conditional Convergence

10.5 The Ratio and Root Tests and Strategies for Choosing Tests

10.6 Power Series

10.7 Taylor Polynomials

10.8 Taylor Series

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 11: Parametric Equations, Polar Coordinates, and Conic Sections**

11.1 Parametric Equations

11.2 Arc Length and Speed

11.3 Polar Coordinates

11.4 Area and Arc Length in Polar Coordinates

11.5 Conic Sections

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 12: Vector Geometry**

12.1 Vectors in the Plane

12.2 Three-Dimensional Space: Surfaces, Vectors, and Curves

12.3 Dot Product and the Angle Between Two Vectors

12.4 The Cross Product

12.5 Planes in 3-Space

12.6 A Survey of Quadric Surfaces

12.7 Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 13: Calculus of Vector-Valued Functions**

13.1 Vector-Valued Functions

13.2 Calculus of Vector-Valued Functions

13.3 Arc Length and Speed

13.4 Curvature

13.5 Motion in 3-Space

13.6 Planetary Motion According to Kepler and Newton

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 14: Differentiation in Several Variables**

14.1 Functions of Two or More Variables

14.2 Limits and Continuity in Several Variables

14.3 Partial Derivatives

14.4 Differentiability, Tangent Planes, and Linear Approximation

14.5 The Gradient and Directional Derivatives

14.6 Multivariable Calculus Chain Rules

14.7 Optimization in Several Variables

14.8 Lagrange Multipliers: Optimizing with a Constraint

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 15: Multiple Integration**

15.1 Integration in Two Variables

15.2 Double Integrals over More General Regions

15.3 Triple Integrals

15.4 Integration in Polar, Cylindrical, and Spherical Coordinates

15.5 Applications of Multiple Integrals

15.6 Change of Variables

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 16: Line and Surface Integrals**

16.1 Vector Fields

16.2 Line Integrals

16.3 Conservative Vector Fields

16.4 Parametrized Surfaces and Surface Integrals

16.5 Surface Integrals of Vector Fields

Chapter Review Exercises

**Chapter 17: Fundamental Theorems of Vector Analysis**

17.1 Green’s Theorem

17.2 Stokes’ Theorem

17.3 Divergence Theorem

Chapter Review Exercises

**Appendices**A. The Language of Mathematics

B. Properties of Real Numbers

C. Induction and the Binomial Theorem

D. Additional Proofs

ANSWERS TO ODD-NUMBERED EXERCISES REFERENCES

INDEX

Additional content can be accessed online at www.macmillanlearning.com/calculuset4e:

**Additional Proofs:**L’Hôpital’s Rule

Error Bounds for Numerical

Integration

Comparison Test for Improper

Integrals

**Additional Content:**Second-Order Differential

Equations

Complex Numbers

Look Inside

**Calculus: Early Transcendentals**

Fourth Edition| 2019

Jon Rogawski; Colin Adams; Robert Franzosa

## Authors

### Jon Rogawski

**Jon Rogawski** received his undergraduate and master’s degrees in mathematics simultaneously from Yale University, and he earned his PhD in mathematics from Princeton University, where he studied under Robert Langlands. Before joining the Department of Mathematics at UCLA in 1986, where he was a full professor, he held teaching and visiting positions at the Institute for Advanced Study, the University of Bonn, and the University of Paris at Jussieu and Orsay.
Jon’s areas of interest were number theory, automorphic forms, and harmonic analysis on semisimple groups. He published numerous research articles in leading mathematics journals, including the research monograph Automorphic Representations of Unitary Groups in Three Variables (Princeton University Press). He was the recipient of a Sloan Fellowship and an editor of the Pacific Journal of Mathematics and the Transactions of the AMS.
As a successful teacher for more than 30 years, Jon Rogawski listened and learned much from his own students. These valuable lessons made an impact on his thinking, his writing, and his shaping of a calculus text. Sadly, Jon Rogawski passed away in September 2011. Jon’s commitment to presenting the beauty of calculus and the important role it plays in students’ understanding of the wider world is the legacy that lives on in each new edition of Calculus.

### Colin Adams

**Colin Adams ** is the Thomas T. Read professor of Mathematics at Williams College, where he has taught since 1985. Colin received his undergraduate degree from MIT and his PhD from the University of Wisconsin. His research is in the area of knot theory and low-dimensional topology. He has held various grants to support his research, and written numerous research articles.
Colin is the author or co-author of The Knot Book, How to Ace Calculus: The Streetwise Guide, How to Ace the Rest of Calculus: The Streetwise Guide, Riot at the Calc Exam and Other Mathematically Bent Stories, Why Knot?, Introduction to Topology: Pure and Applied, and Zombies & Calculus. He co-wrote and appears in the videos “The Great Pi vs. E Debate” and “Derivative vs. Integral: the Final Smackdown.”
He is a recipient of the Haimo National Distinguished Teaching Award from the Mathematical Association of America (MAA) in 1998, an MAA Polya Lecturer for 1998-2000, a Sigma Xi Distinguished Lecturer for 2000-2002, and the recipient of the Robert Foster Cherry Teaching Award in 2003. Colin has two children and one slightly crazy dog, who is great at providing the entertainment.

### Robert Franzosa

**Robert (Bob) Franzosa** is a professor of mathematics at the University of Maine where he has been on the faculty since 1983. Bob received a BS in mathematics from MIT in 1977 and a Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of Wisconsin in 1984. His research has been in dynamical systems and in applications of topology in geographic information systems. He has been involved in mathematics education outreach in the state of Maine for most of his career.
Bob is a co-author of Introduction to Topology: Pure and Applied and Algebraic Models in Our World. He was awarded the University of Maine’s Presidential Outstanding Teaching award in 2003. Bob is married, has two children, three step-children, and one recently-arrived grandson.

Look Inside

**Calculus: Early Transcendentals**

Fourth Edition| 2019

Jon Rogawski; Colin Adams; Robert Franzosa

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**Calculus: Early Transcendentals**

Fourth Edition| 2019

Jon Rogawski; Colin Adams; Robert Franzosa

## Related Titles

**Calculus: Early Transcendentals**

Fourth Edition| 2019

Jon Rogawski; Colin Adams; Robert Franzosa

## Videos

Colin Adams' Calculus 3e Co-authorship Video

Colin Adams discusses how he became involved with co-authoring Calculus 3e.

Colin Adams' Various Calculus Books Video

Colin Adams describes his supplemental texts and new novel, Zombies & Calculus.

Colin Adams' knot theory Video

Colin Adams describes how he began working on Knot Theory.

Transitioning to Homework Video

Colin Adams describes how Calculus 3e helps students transition from class to homework.

Notation Video

Colin Adams explains important updates to the notation in Calculus 3e.

Minimizing Memorization Video

Colin Adams discusses his focus on concepts and minimizing memorization in Calculus 3e.

Understanding Formulas Video

Colin Adams talks about how the new edition helps students understand formulas.

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